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Building the IPO order book: underpricing and participation limits with costly information

  • Sherman, Ann E.
  • Titman, Sheridan

This paper examines the book building mechanism for marketing initial public offerings. We present a model where the underwriter selects a group of investors along with a pricing and allocation mechanism in a way that maximizes the information generated during the process of going public at a minimum cost. Unlike previous models, we take into account the moral hazard problem that is faced by investors when evaluation is costly. Our results suggest that for firms with the most to gain from accurate pricing, the number of investors participating in the offering is larger, and underpricing will be greater. When the demand for accuracy is relatively low, the expected amount of underpricing exactly offsets the investors' costs of acquiring information. However, when the demand for accuracy is high, the expected amount of underpricing can exceed the cost of information and investors can earn rents.

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Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Journal of Financial Economics.

Volume (Year): 65 (2002)
Issue (Month): 1 (July)
Pages: 3-29

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Handle: RePEc:eee:jfinec:v:65:y:2002:i:1:p:3-29
Contact details of provider: Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/inca/505576

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  1. Tim Jenkinson & William Wilhelm, 2000. "Has the introduction of bookbuilding increased the efficiency of international IPOs?," Economics Series Working Papers 2000-FE-04, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
  2. Hanley, Kathleen Weiss, 1993. "The underpricing of initial public offerings and the partial adjustment phenomenon," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(2), pages 231-250, October.
  3. Stoughton, Neal M. & Zechner, Josef, 1998. "IPO-mechanisms, monitoring and ownership structure," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 49(1), pages 45-77, July.
  4. Sherman, Ann E, 2000. "IPOs and Long-Term Relationships: An Advantage of Book Building," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 13(3), pages 697-714.
  5. Avanidhar Subrahmanyam & Sheridan Titman, 1999. "The Going-Public Decision and the Development of Financial Markets," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 54(3), pages 1045-1082, 06.
  6. Chowdhry, Bhagwan & Sherman, Ann, 1996. "International differences in oversubscription and underpricing of IPOs," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 2(4), pages 359-381, July.
  7. Randolph P. Beatty & Jay R. Ritter, . "Investment Banking, Reputation and the Underpricing of Initial Public Offerings," Rodney L. White Center for Financial Research Working Papers 02-85, Wharton School Rodney L. White Center for Financial Research.
  8. Stoughton, Neal M & Wong, Kit Pong & Zechner, Josef, 2001. "IPOs and Product Quality," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 74(3), pages 375-408, July.
  9. Hanley, Kathleen Weiss & Wilhelm Jr., William J., 1995. "Evidence on the strategic allocation of initial public offerings," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 37(2), pages 239-257, February.
  10. Benveniste, Lawrence M. & Busaba, Walid Y. & Wilhelm, William Jr., 2002. "Information Externalities and the Role of Underwriters in Primary Equity Markets," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 11(1), pages 61-86, January.
  11. Ljungqvist, Alexander P. & Wilhelm, William Jr., 2002. "IPO allocations: discriminatory or discretionary?," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 65(2), pages 167-201, August.
  12. Sherman, Ann Guenther, 1992. " The Pricing of Best Efforts New Issues," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 47(2), pages 781-90, June.
  13. Chowdhry, Bhagwan & Sherman, Ann, 1996. "The winner's curse and international methods of allocating initial public offerings," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 4(1), pages 15-30, May.
  14. Mello, Antonio S. & Parsons, John E., 1998. "Going public and the ownership structure of the firm," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 49(1), pages 79-109, July.
  15. Loughran, Tim & Ritter, Jay R. & Rydqvist, Kristian, 1994. "Initial public offerings: International insights," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 2(2-3), pages 165-199, May.
  16. Alexander P. Ljungqvist & Tim Jenkinson & William J. Wilhelm, Jr., 2003. "Global Integration in Primary Equity Markets: The Role of U.S. Banks and U.S. Investors," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 16(1), pages 63-99.
  17. Cornelli, Francesca & Goldreich, David, 1999. "Bookbuilding and Strategic Allocation," CEPR Discussion Papers 2160, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  18. Michel Habib & Alexander Ljungqvist, 1999. "Underpricing and Entrepreneurial Wealth Losses in IPOs: Theory and Evidence," OFRC Working Papers Series 1999fe03, Oxford Financial Research Centre.
  19. Benveniste, Lawrence M. & Busaba, Walid Y., 1997. "Bookbuilding vs. Fixed Price: An Analysis of Competing Strategies for Marketing IPOs," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 32(04), pages 383-403, December.
  20. Benveniste, Lawrence M. & Spindt, Paul A., 1989. "How investment bankers determine the offer price and allocation of new issues," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 24(2), pages 343-361.
  21. Hsuan-Chi Chen & Jay R. Ritter, 2000. "The Seven Percent Solution," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 55(3), pages 1105-1131, 06.
  22. Titman, Sheridan & Trueman, Brett, 1986. "Information quality and the valuation of new issues," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 8(2), pages 159-172, June.
  23. Avanidhar Subrahmanyam, 2001. "Feedback from Stock Prices to Cash Flows," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 56(6), pages 2389-2413, December.
  24. Francesca Cornelli, 2001. "Bookbuilding and Strategic Allocation," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 56(6), pages 2337-2369, December.
  25. Laurie Krigman & Wayne H. Shaw & Kent L. Womack, 1999. "The Persistence of IPO Mispricing and the Predictive Power of Flipping," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 54(3), pages 1015-1044, 06.
  26. Sherman, Ann E., 2005. "Global trends in IPO methods: Book building versus auctions with endogenous entry," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 78(3), pages 615-649, December.
  27. Rock, Kevin, 1986. "Why new issues are underpriced," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 15(1-2), pages 187-212.
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