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Building the IPO Order Book: Underpricing and Participation Limits With Costly Information

  • Ann E. Sherman
  • Sheridan Titman

This paper examines the book building mechanism for marketing initial public offerings. We present a model where the underwriter selects a group of investors along with a pricing and allocation mechanism in a way that maximizes the information generated during the process of going public at a minimum cost. Unlike previous models, we take into account the moral hazard problem that is faced by investors when evaluation is costly. Our results suggest that for firms with the most to gain from accurate pricing, the number of investors participating in the offering is larger, and underpricing will be greater. When the demand for accuracy is relatively low, the expected amount of underpricing exactly offsets the investors' costs of acquiring information. However, when the demand for accuracy is high, the expected amount of underpricing can exceed the cost of information and investors can earn rents.

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Paper provided by National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc in its series NBER Working Papers with number 7786.

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Date of creation: Jul 2000
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Publication status: published as Sherman, Ann E. and Sheridan Titman. "Building The IPO Order Book: Underpricing And Participation Limits With Costly Information," Journal of Financial Economics, 2002, v65(1,Jul), 3-29.
Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:7786
Note: CF
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  2. Mello, Antonio S. & Parsons, John E., 1998. "Going public and the ownership structure of the firm," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 49(1), pages 79-109, July.
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  8. Beatty, Randolph P. & Ritter, Jay R., 1986. "Investment banking, reputation, and the underpricing of initial public offerings," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 15(1-2), pages 213-232.
  9. Rock, Kevin, 1986. "Why new issues are underpriced," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 15(1-2), pages 187-212.
  10. Benveniste, Lawrence M. & Busaba, Walid Y., 1997. "Bookbuilding vs. Fixed Price: An Analysis of Competing Strategies for Marketing IPOs," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 32(04), pages 383-403, December.
  11. Francesca Cornelli, 2001. "Bookbuilding and Strategic Allocation," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 56(6), pages 2337-2369, December.
  12. Hanley, Kathleen Weiss, 1993. "The underpricing of initial public offerings and the partial adjustment phenomenon," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(2), pages 231-250, October.
  13. Alexander Ljungqvist & Tim Jenkinson & William Wilhelm, 2001. "Global Integration in Primary Equity Markets: The Role of U.S. Banks and U.S. Investors," OFRC Working Papers Series 2001fe06, Oxford Financial Research Centre.
  14. Chowdhry, Bhagwan & Sherman, Ann, 1996. "The winner's curse and international methods of allocating initial public offerings," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 4(1), pages 15-30, May.
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  16. Michel Habib & Alexander Ljungqvist, 1999. "Underpricing and Entrepreneurial Wealth Losses in IPOs: Theory and Evidence," OFRC Working Papers Series 1999fe03, Oxford Financial Research Centre.
  17. Sherman, Ann E., 2005. "Global trends in IPO methods: Book building versus auctions with endogenous entry," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 78(3), pages 615-649, December.
  18. Tim Jenkinson & William Wilhelm, 2000. "Has the introduction of bookbuilding increased the efficiency of international IPOs?," Economics Series Working Papers 2000-FE-04, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
  19. Benveniste, Lawrence M. & Spindt, Paul A., 1989. "How investment bankers determine the offer price and allocation of new issues," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 24(2), pages 343-361.
  20. Stoughton, Neal M & Wong, Kit Pong & Zechner, Josef, 2001. "IPOs and Product Quality," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 74(3), pages 375-408, July.
  21. Sherman, Ann E, 2000. "IPOs and Long-Term Relationships: An Advantage of Book Building," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 13(3), pages 697-714.
  22. Chowdhry, Bhagwan & Sherman, Ann, 1996. "International differences in oversubscription and underpricing of IPOs," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 2(4), pages 359-381, July.
  23. Cornelli, Francesca & Goldreich, David, 1999. "Bookbuilding and Strategic Allocation," CEPR Discussion Papers 2160, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  24. Benveniste, Lawrence M. & Busaba, Walid Y. & Wilhelm, William Jr., 2002. "Information Externalities and the Role of Underwriters in Primary Equity Markets," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 11(1), pages 61-86, January.
  25. Sherman, Ann Guenther, 1992. " The Pricing of Best Efforts New Issues," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 47(2), pages 781-90, June.
  26. Stoughton, Neal M. & Zechner, Josef, 1998. "IPO-mechanisms, monitoring and ownership structure," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 49(1), pages 45-77, July.
  27. Laurie Krigman & Wayne H. Shaw & Kent L. Womack, 1999. "The Persistence of IPO Mispricing and the Predictive Power of Flipping," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 54(3), pages 1015-1044, 06.
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