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IPO first-day returns, offer price revisions, volatility, and form S-1 language

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  • Loughran, Tim
  • McDonald, Bill

Abstract

Form S-1 is the first SEC filing in the initial public offering (IPO) process. The tone of the S-1, in terms of its definitiveness in characterizing the firm’s business strategy and operations, should affect investors’ ability to value the IPO. We find that IPOs with high levels of uncertain text have higher first-day returns, absolute offer price revisions, and subsequent volatility. Our findings provide empirical evidence for the theoretical models of uncertainty, bookbuilding, and prospect theory.

Suggested Citation

  • Loughran, Tim & McDonald, Bill, 2013. "IPO first-day returns, offer price revisions, volatility, and form S-1 language," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 109(2), pages 307-326.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:jfinec:v:109:y:2013:i:2:p:307-326
    DOI: 10.1016/j.jfineco.2013.02.017
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    Cited by:

    1. Keim, Donald B & Massa, Massimo & von Beschwitz, Bastian, 2015. "First to “Read” the News: News Analytics and Institutional Trading," CEPR Discussion Papers 10534, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    2. Richard A. Bettis & Constance E. Helfat & J. Myles Shaver & U. David Park & Abhishek Borah & Suresh Kotha, 2016. "Signaling revisited: The use of signals in the market for IPOs," Strategic Management Journal, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 37(11), pages 2362-2377, November.
    3. repec:eee:corfin:v:47:y:2017:i:c:p:253-268 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. repec:bla:jfnres:v:40:y:2017:i:3:p:369-400 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. Boone, Audra L. & Floros, Ioannis V. & Johnson, Shane A., 2016. "Redacting proprietary information at the initial public offering," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 120(1), pages 102-123.
    6. Benson, David F. & Brau, James C. & Cicon, James & Ferris, Stephen P., 2015. "Strategically camouflaged corporate governance in IPOs: Entrepreneurial masking and impression management," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 30(6), pages 839-864.
    7. Kearney, Colm & Liu, Sha, 2014. "Textual sentiment in finance: A survey of methods and models," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 33(C), pages 171-185.
    8. repec:eee:corfin:v:48:y:2018:i:c:p:726-751 is not listed on IDEAS
    9. Buehlmaier, Matthias M. M. & Zechner, Josef, 2016. "Financial media, price discovery, and merger arbitrage," CFS Working Paper Series 551, Center for Financial Studies (CFS).
    10. Tim Loughran & Bill McDonald, 2014. "Regulation and financial disclosure: The impact of plain English," Journal of Regulatory Economics, Springer, vol. 45(1), pages 94-113, February.
    11. Ahmed, Yousry & Elshandidy, Tamer, 2016. "The effect of bidder conservatism on M&A decisions: Text-based evidence from US 10-K filings," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 46(C), pages 176-190.
    12. Waël Louhichi & Ousayna Zreik, 2015. "Corporate Risk Reporting: A study of The Impact of Risk Disclosure on Firms Reputation," Post-Print halshs-01271284, HAL.
    13. Vithanage, Kulunu & Neupane, Suman & Chung, Richard, 2016. "Multiple lead underwriting syndicate and IPO pricing," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 48(C), pages 193-208.
    14. Chouliaras, Andreas, 2015. "Institutional Investors, Annual Reports, Textual Analysis and Stock Returns: Evidence from SEC EDGAR 10-K and 13-F Forms," MPRA Paper 65875, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    15. Zhi Da & Ravi Jagannathan & Jianfeng Shen, 2012. "Building Castles in the Air: Evidence from Industry IPO Waves," NBER Working Papers 18555, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    16. repec:eee:corfin:v:46:y:2017:i:c:p:139-153 is not listed on IDEAS
    17. repec:spr:reaccs:v:22:y:2017:i:3:d:10.1007_s11142-017-9406-2 is not listed on IDEAS
    18. Guldiken, Orhun & Tupper, Christina & Nair, Anil & Yu, Huizhi, 2017. "The impact of media coverage on IPO stock performance," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 72(C), pages 24-32.
    19. Nielsson, Ulf & Wójcik, Dariusz, 2016. "Proximity and IPO underpricing," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 38(C), pages 92-105.
    20. Chouliaras, Andreas, 2015. "High Frequency Newswire Textual Sentiment: Evidence from international stock markets during the European Financial Crisis," MPRA Paper 62524, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    21. Michał Dzieliński & Alexander F. Wagner & Richard J. Zeckhauser, 2017. "Straight Talkers and Vague Talkers: The Effects of Managerial Style in Earnings Conference Calls," NBER Working Papers 23425, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    22. Fodor, Andy & Gokkaya, Sinan, 2014. "Option implied volatilities and the cost of issuing equity," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 47(C), pages 88-101.
    23. Wael Louhichi & Ousayna Zreik, 2015. "Corporate Risk Reporting: A study of The Impact of Risk Disclosure on Firms Reputation," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 35(4), pages 2395-2408.
    24. Chouliaras, Andreas, 2015. "The Pessimism Factor: SEC EDGAR Form 10-K Textual Analysis and Stock Returns," MPRA Paper 65585, University Library of Munich, Germany.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    IPOs; First-day returns; Bookbuilding; S-1 filings; Textual analysis;

    JEL classification:

    • G14 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Information and Market Efficiency; Event Studies; Insider Trading
    • G18 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Government Policy and Regulation
    • G24 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Investment Banking; Venture Capital; Brokerage

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