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The Distance Puzzle and Low- Income Countries: An Update

Author

Listed:
  • Céline CARRERE

    (University of Geneva)

  • Jaime DE MELO

    () (Ferdi)

  • John WILSON

    (FERDI)

Abstract

The “distance effect” measuring the elasticity of trade flows to distance has been found to be rising since the early 1970s in a host of studies based on the gravity model, leading observers to call it the “distance puzzle”. However, this puzzle is regularly challenged by new developments in the specification of the gravity equation or in its estimations. We propose an original survey on the existingmethods used to quantify the distance puzzle – basically the computation of an average distance of trade, a meta-analysis on existing gravity papers and the implementation of recent econometric developments, all on a well-specified gravity equation both in cross-section and panel data. We apply all these methods to a unique large database (124 countries from 1970 to 2006). It appears that if all these new developments can change the amplitude of the increase in the trade elasticity to distance, none solve the distance puzzle. We confirm the existence of this puzzle and identify that it only applies to low-income countries who exhibit a significant rising distance effect on their trade of around 18% between 1970 and 2006 while the distance “puzzle” for trade within richer countries disappears.

Suggested Citation

  • Céline CARRERE & Jaime DE MELO & John WILSON, 2011. "The Distance Puzzle and Low- Income Countries: An Update," Working Papers P30, FERDI.
  • Handle: RePEc:fdi:wpaper:555
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. repec:eee:inteco:v:151:y:2017:i:c:p:26-47 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. Borchert, Ingo & Yotov, Yoto V., 2017. "Distance, globalization, and international trade," Economics Letters, Elsevier, pages 32-38.
    3. Lugovskyy, Oleksandr & Skiba, Alexandre, 2014. "Effect of distance on trade under slope heterogeneity and cross-correlated effects," Economics Discussion Papers 2014-30, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW).
    4. de Melo, Jaime & Tsikata, Yvonne, 2014. "Regional integration in Africa: Challenges and prospects," WIDER Working Paper Series 037, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    5. Clément Bosquet & Hervé Boulhol, 2015. "What is really puzzling about the “distance puzzle”," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), pages 1-21.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • F10 - International Economics - - Trade - - - General
    • F40 - International Economics - - Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance - - - General

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