From Monasteries to Multinationals (and Back): A Historical Review of the Beer Economy
This article reviews beer production, consumption and the industrial organization of breweries throughout history. Monasteries were the centers of the beer economy in the early Middle Ages. Innovation and increased demand later induced the growth of commercial breweries. Globalization and scientific discoveries transformed the beer industry and increased competition from the 16th through the 19th century. The 20th century was characterized by dramatic (domestic and international) consolidation, major shifts in consumption patterns, and the re-emergence of small breweries. [Discussion Paper 294/2011]. URL:[http://www.econ.kuleuven.be/licos/DP/DP2011/DP294.pdf].
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- Damiaan Persyn & Johan F.M.Swinnen & Stijn Vanormelingen, 2010. "Belgian Beers : Where History meets Globalization," LICOS Discussion Papers 27110, LICOS - Centre for Institutions and Economic Performance, KU Leuven.
- Swinnen, Johan F.M. (ed.), 2011. "The Economics of Beer," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780199693801.
- Johan F.M. Swinnen & Liesbeth Colen, 2011.
"Beer Drinking Nations: The Determinants of Global Beer Consumption,"
- Johan F.M.Swinnen & Liesbeth Colen, 2010. "Beer Drinking Nations. The Determinants of Global Beer Consumption," LICOS Discussion Papers 27010, LICOS - Centre for Institutions and Economic Performance, KU Leuven.
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