IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/egu/wpaper/2125.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Migrant Inventors as Agents of Technological Change

Author

Listed:
  • Ernest Miguelez
  • Andrea Morrison

Abstract

How do regions enter new and distant technological fields? Who is triggering this process? This work addresses these compelling research questions by investigating the role of migrant inventors in the process of technological diversification. Immigrant inventors can indeed act as carriers of knowledge across borders and influence the direction of technological change. We test these latter propositions by using an original dataset of immigrant inventors in the context of European regions during the period 2003-2011. Our findings show that: immigrant inventors generate positive local knowledge spillovers; they help their host regions to develop new technological specialisations; they trigger a process of unrelated diversification. Their contribution comes via two main mechanisms: immigrant inventors use their own personal knowledge (knowledge creation); they import knowledge from their home country to the host region (knowledge transfer). Their impact is maximised when their knowledge is not recombined with the local one (in mixed teams of inventors), but it is reused (in teams made by only migrant inventors). Our work contributes to the existing literature of regional diversification by providing fresh evidence of unrelated diversification for European regions and by identifying important agents of structural change. It also contributes to the literature of migration and innovation by adding fresh evidence on European regions and by unveiling some of the mechanisms of immigrants’ knowledge transmission.

Suggested Citation

  • Ernest Miguelez & Andrea Morrison, 2021. "Migrant Inventors as Agents of Technological Change," Papers in Evolutionary Economic Geography (PEEG) 2125, Utrecht University, Department of Human Geography and Spatial Planning, Group Economic Geography, revised Aug 2021.
  • Handle: RePEc:egu:wpaper:2125
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://econ.geo.uu.nl/peeg/peeg2125.pdf
    File Function: Version August 2021
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Dario Diodato & Andrea Morrison & Sergio Petralia, 2022. "Migration and invention in the Age of Mass Migration [Immigration in American economic history]," Journal of Economic Geography, Oxford University Press, vol. 22(2), pages 477-498.
    2. Valentina Di Iasio & Ernest Miguelez, 2022. "The ties that bind and transform: knowledge remittances, relatedness and the direction of technical change [Brain drain or brain bank? The impact of skilled emigration on poor-country innovation]," Journal of Economic Geography, Oxford University Press, vol. 22(2), pages 423-448.
    3. C. Fink & Ernest Miguelez, 2017. "Introduction: The international mobility of talent and innovation. New evidence and policy implications," Post-Print hal-03141599, HAL.
    4. George J. Borjas & Kirk B. Doran, 2021. "The Collapse Of The Soviet Union And The Productivity Of American Mathematicians," World Scientific Book Chapters, in: Foundational Essays in Immigration Economics, chapter 11, pages 313-373, World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    5. Jennifer Hunt & Marjolaine Gauthier-Loiselle, 2010. "How Much Does Immigration Boost Innovation?," American Economic Journal: Macroeconomics, American Economic Association, vol. 2(2), pages 31-56, April.
    6. Ferrucci, Edoardo & Lissoni, Francesco, 2019. "Foreign inventors in Europe and the United States: Diversity and Patent Quality," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 48(9), pages 1-1.
    7. Francesco Lissoni, 2018. "International migration and innovation diffusion: an eclectic survey," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 52(5), pages 702-714, May.
    8. Massimiliano Bratti & Chiara Conti, 2018. "The effect of immigration on innovation in Italy," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 52(7), pages 934-947, July.
    9. Ellen Enkel & Annika Groemminger & Sebastian Heil, 2018. "Managing technological distance in internal and external collaborations: absorptive capacity routines and social integration for innovation," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 43(5), pages 1257-1290, October.
    10. Radosevic, Slavo, 2002. "Regional Innovation Systems in Central and Eastern Europe: Determinants, Organizers and Alignments," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 27(1), pages 87-96, January.
    11. Fassio, Claudio & Montobbio, Fabio & Venturini, Alessandra, 2019. "Skilled migration and innovation in European industries," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 48(3), pages 706-718.
    12. Koutchogna Kokou Assogbavi, 2021. "Global Account Imbalances since the Global FinancialCrisis: Determinants, Implications and Challenges forthe Global Economy," Working Papers hal-03258293, HAL.
    13. Ron Boschma, 2017. "Relatedness as driver of regional diversification: a research agenda," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 51(3), pages 351-364, March.
    14. Bosetti, Valentina & Cattaneo, Cristina & Verdolini, Elena, 2015. "Migration of skilled workers and innovation: A European Perspective," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 96(2), pages 311-322.
    15. Ron Boschma & Ernest Miguelez & Rosina Moreno & Diego B. Ocampo-Corrales, 2021. "Technological breakthroughs in European regions: the role of related and unrelated combinations," Papers in Evolutionary Economic Geography (PEEG) 2118, Utrecht University, Department of Human Geography and Spatial Planning, Group Economic Geography, revised Jun 2021.
    16. Bahar, Dany & Choudhury, Prithwiraj & Rapoport, Hillel, 2020. "Migrant inventors and the technological advantage of nations," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 49(9).
    17. Olivier Bargain & Guy Lacroix & Luca Tiberti, 2021. "Intrahousehold Resource Allocation and Individual Poverty: Assessing Collective Model Predictions against Direct Evidence on Sharing," Working Papers hal-03432676, HAL.
    18. Boschma, Ron & Capone, Gianluca, 2015. "Institutions and diversification: Related versus unrelated diversification in a varieties of capitalism framework," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 44(10), pages 1902-1914.
    19. Jennifer Hunt, 2015. "Are Immigrants the Most Skilled US Computer and Engineering Workers?," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 33(S1), pages 39-77.
    20. Ulugbek Aminjonov & Olivier Bargain & Tanguy Bernard, 2021. "Gimme Shelter. Social distancing and Income Support in times of Pandemic," Bordeaux Economics Working Papers 2021-12, Bordeaux School of Economics (BSE).
    21. Saxenian, AnnaLee & Hsu, Jinn-Yuh, 2001. "The Silicon Valley-Hsinchu Connection: Technical Communities and Industrial Upgrading," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 10(4), pages 893-920, December.
    22. Bahar, Dany & Hausmann, Ricardo & Hidalgo, Cesar A., 2014. "Neighbors and the evolution of the comparative advantage of nations: Evidence of international knowledge diffusion?," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 92(1), pages 111-123.
    23. Richard B. Freeman, 2006. "People Flows in Globalization," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 20(2), pages 145-170, Spring.
    24. Cristelli, Gabriele & Lissoni, Francesco, 2020. "Free movement of inventors: open-border policy and innovation in Switzerland," MPRA Paper 107433, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    25. Peter Nijkamp & Jacques Poot & Mediha Sahin (ed.), 2012. "Migration Impact Assessment," Books, Edward Elgar Publishing, number 14476.
    26. Orazbayev, Sultan, 2017. "International stocks and flows of students and researchers reconstructed from ORCID biographies," MPRA Paper 79242, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    27. Frank Neffke & Matté Hartog & Ron Boschma & Martin Henning, 2018. "Agents of Structural Change: The Role of Firms and Entrepreneurs in Regional Diversification," Economic Geography, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 94(1), pages 23-48, January.
    28. Bernstein, Shai & Diamond, Rebecca & McQuade, Timothy James & Pousada, Beatriz, 2018. "The Contribution of High-Skilled Immigrants to Innovation in the United States," Research Papers 3748, Stanford University, Graduate School of Business.
    29. Breschi, Stefano & Lawson, Cornelia & Lissoni, Francesco & Morrison, Andrea & Salter, Ammon, 2020. "STEM migration, research, and innovation," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 49(9).
    30. Sari Pekkala Kerr & William Kerr & Çağlar Özden & Christopher Parsons, 2016. "Global Talent Flows," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 30(4), pages 83-106, Fall.
    31. Ernest Miguelez & Andrea Morrison, 2021. "“Migrant Inventors as Agents of Technological Change”," AQR Working Papers 202105, University of Barcelona, Regional Quantitative Analysis Group, revised Jul 2021.
    32. Ernest Miguelez & Andrea Morrison, 2021. ""Migrant Inventors as Agents of Technological"," IREA Working Papers 202114, University of Barcelona, Research Institute of Applied Economics, revised Jul 2021.
    33. William R. Kerr, 2008. "Ethnic Scientific Communities and International Technology Diffusion," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 90(3), pages 518-537, August.
    34. Koutchogna Kokou Assogbavi & Stephane Dees, 2021. "Environmental policy and the CO2 emissions embodied in international trade," Working Papers hal-03265178, HAL.
    35. Frank Neffke & Martin Henning & Ron Boschma, 2011. "How Do Regions Diversify over Time? Industry Relatedness and the Development of New Growth Paths in Regions," Economic Geography, Clark University, vol. 87(3), pages 237-265, July.
    36. Cowan, Robin & David, Paul A & Foray, Dominique, 2000. "The Explicit Economics of Knowledge Codification and Tacitness," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 9(2), pages 211-253, June.
    37. C. Fink & Ernest Miguelez, 2017. "The international mobility of talent and innovation. New evidence and policy implications," Post-Print hal-03141596, HAL.
    38. Francesco Lissoni, 2018. "International migration and innovation diffusion: an eclectic survey," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 52(5), pages 702-714, May.
    39. Fink,Carsten & Miguelez,Ernest (ed.), 2017. "The International Mobility of Talent and Innovation," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9781107174245.
    40. Andrea Morrison & Roberta Rabellotti & Lorenzo Zirulia, 2013. "When Do Global Pipelines Enhance the Diffusion of Knowledge in Clusters?," Economic Geography, Clark University, vol. 89(1), pages 77-96, January.
    41. Adam Whittle & Balázs Lengyel & Dieter F. Kogler, 2020. "Understanding Regional Branching Knowledge Diversification via Inventor Collaboration Networks," Papers in Evolutionary Economic Geography (PEEG) 2006, Utrecht University, Department of Human Geography and Spatial Planning, Group Economic Geography, revised Feb 2020.
    42. Giovanni Dosi & Luigi Marengo & Alessandro Nuvolari, 2020. "Institutions and economic change: some notes on self-organization, power and learning in human organizations," Eurasian Business Review, Springer;Eurasia Business and Economics Society, vol. 10(1), pages 1-22, March.
    43. Andrea Morrison & Roberta Rabellotti & Florian Lorenzo Zirulia, 2011. "When do global pipelines enhance knowledge diffusion in clusters?," Papers in Evolutionary Economic Geography (PEEG) 1105, Utrecht University, Department of Human Geography and Spatial Planning, Group Economic Geography, revised Mar 2011.
    44. Zoltán Elekes & Ron Boschma & Balázs Lengyel, 2019. "Foreign-owned firms as agents of structural change in regions," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 53(11), pages 1603-1613, November.
    45. Gianluca Capone & Franco Malerba & Richard R. Nelson & Luigi Orsenigo & Sidney G. Winter, 2019. "History friendly models: retrospective and future perspectives," Eurasian Business Review, Springer;Eurasia Business and Economics Society, vol. 9(1), pages 1-23, March.
    46. Michele Coscia & Frank M. H. Neffke & Ricardo Hausmann, 2020. "Knowledge diffusion in the network of international business travel," Nature Human Behaviour, Nature, vol. 4(10), pages 1011-1020, October.
    47. Jasjit Singh, 2007. "Asymmetry of knowledge spillovers between MNCs and host country firms," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 38(5), pages 764-786, September.
    48. Ron Boschma & Pierre-Alexandre Balland & Dieter Franz Kogler, 2015. "Relatedness and technological change in cities: the rise and fall of technological knowledge in US metropolitan areas from 1981 to 2010," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 24(1), pages 223-250.
    49. Ernest Miguelez & Carsten Fink, 2013. "Measuring the International Mobility of Inventors: A New Database," WIPO Economic Research Working Papers 08, World Intellectual Property Organization - Economics and Statistics Division, revised May 2013.
    50. Stefano Breschi & Francesco Lissoni & Ernest Miguelez, 2017. "Foreign-origin inventors in the USA: testing for diaspora and brain gain effects," Journal of Economic Geography, Oxford University Press, vol. 17(5), pages 1009-1038.
    51. Ron Boschma & Ron Martin (ed.), 2010. "The Handbook of Evolutionary Economic Geography," Books, Edward Elgar Publishing, number 12864.
    52. Johannes van Der Pol & Jean-Paul Rameshkoumar, 2021. "A method to reduce false positives in a patent query [Une méthode pour réduire les faux positifs dans une requête brevet]," Working Papers hal-03287970, HAL.
    53. Ina Ganguli, 2015. "Immigration and Ideas: What Did Russian Scientists "Bring" to the United States?," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 33(S1), pages 257-288.
    54. Dosi, Giovanni, 1997. "Opportunities, Incentives and the Collective Patterns of Technological Change," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 107(444), pages 1530-1547, September.
    55. Ceren Ozgen & Peter Nijkamp & Jacques Poot, 2012. "Immigration and innovation in European regions," Chapters, in: Peter Nijkamp & Jacques Poot & Mediha Sahin (ed.), Migration Impact Assessment, chapter 8, pages 261-298, Edward Elgar Publishing.
    56. Francesco LISSONI, 2016. "Migration and Innovation Diffusion : An Eclectic Survey," Cahiers du GREThA (2007-2019) 2016-11, Groupe de Recherche en Economie Théorique et Appliquée (GREThA).
    57. Audretsch, David B & Feldman, Maryann P, 1996. "R&D Spillovers and the Geography of Innovation and Production," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 86(3), pages 630-640, June.
    58. C. A. Hidalgo & B. Klinger & A. -L. Barabasi & R. Hausmann, 2007. "The Product Space Conditions the Development of Nations," Papers 0708.2090, arXiv.org.
    59. Amara Zongo, 2022. "The effects of restrictive measures on cross‐border investment: Evidence from OECD and emerging countries," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 45(8), pages 2428-2477, August.
    60. Ron Martin & Peter Sunley, 2006. "Path dependence and regional economic evolution," Journal of Economic Geography, Oxford University Press, vol. 6(4), pages 395-437, August.
    61. David L. Rigby, 2015. "Technological Relatedness and Knowledge Space: Entry and Exit of US Cities from Patent Classes," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 49(11), pages 1922-1937, November.
    62. Prithwiraj Choudhury & Do Yoon Kim, 2019. "The ethnic migrant inventor effect: Codification and recombination of knowledge across borders," Strategic Management Journal, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 40(2), pages 203-229, February.
    63. Zsolt Csáfordi & László Lőrincz & Balázs Lengyel & Károly Miklós Kiss, 2020. "Productivity spillovers through labor flows: productivity gap, multinational experience and industry relatedness," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 45(1), pages 86-121, February.
    64. repec:wip:wpaper:8 is not listed on IDEAS
    65. Koen Frenken & Frank Van Oort & Thijs Verburg, 2007. "Related Variety, Unrelated Variety and Regional Economic Growth," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 41(5), pages 685-697.
    66. Cristelli, Gabriele & Lissoni, Francesco, 2020. "Free movement of inventors: open-border policy and innovation in Switzerland," MPRA Paper 104120, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    67. Dosi, Giovanni & Nelson, Richard R, 1994. "An Introduction to Evolutionary Theories in Economics," Journal of Evolutionary Economics, Springer, vol. 4(3), pages 153-172, September.
    68. Kirk Doran & Chungeun Yoon, 2019. "Immigration and Invention: Does Language Matter?," NBER Chapters, in: The Roles of Immigrants and Foreign Students in US Science, Innovation, and Entrepreneurship, pages 123-145, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    69. Stefano Breschi & Francesco Lissoni, 2009. "Mobility of skilled workers and co-invention networks: an anatomy of localized knowledge flows," Journal of Economic Geography, Oxford University Press, vol. 9(4), pages 439-468, July.
    70. Caviggioli, Federico & Jensen, Paul & Scellato, Giuseppe, 2020. "Highly skilled migrants and technological diversification in the US and Europe," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 154(C).
    71. Jason Owen-Smith & Walter W. Powell, 2004. "Knowledge Networks as Channels and Conduits: The Effects of Spillovers in the Boston Biotechnology Community," Organization Science, INFORMS, vol. 15(1), pages 5-21, February.
    72. Stefano Breschi & Francesco Lissoni & Ernest Miguelez, 2017. "Foreign-origin inventors in the USA: testing for diaspora and brain gain effects," Journal of Economic Geography, Oxford University Press, vol. 17(5), pages 1009-1038.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Ernest Miguelez & Andrea Morrison, 2021. "“Migrant Inventors as Agents of Technological Change”," AQR Working Papers 202105, University of Barcelona, Regional Quantitative Analysis Group, revised Jul 2021.
    2. Ron Boschma, 2021. "Global Value Chains from an Evolutionary Economic Geography perspective: a research agenda," Papers in Evolutionary Economic Geography (PEEG) 2134, Utrecht University, Department of Human Geography and Spatial Planning, Group Economic Geography, revised Nov 2021.
    3. Viktor Stojkoski & Philipp Koch & Cesar A. Hidalgo, 2022. "The Role of Immigrants, Emigrants, and Locals in the Historical Formation of Knowledge Agglomerations," Papers in Evolutionary Economic Geography (PEEG) 2231, Utrecht University, Department of Human Geography and Spatial Planning, Group Economic Geography, revised Nov 2022.
    4. Philipp Koch & Viktor Stojkoski & C'esar A. Hidalgo, 2022. "The Role of Immigrants, Emigrants, and Locals in the Historical Formation of European Knowledge Agglomerations," Papers 2210.15914, arXiv.org, revised Mar 2023.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Valentina Di Iasio & Ernest Miguelez, 2022. "The ties that bind and transform: knowledge remittances, relatedness and the direction of technical change [Brain drain or brain bank? The impact of skilled emigration on poor-country innovation]," Journal of Economic Geography, Oxford University Press, vol. 22(2), pages 423-448.
    2. Miguelez, Ernest & Noumedem Temgoua, Claudia, 2020. "Inventor migration and knowledge flows: A two-way communication channel?," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 49(9).
    3. Bahar, Dany & Choudhury, Prithwiraj & Rapoport, Hillel, 2020. "Migrant inventors and the technological advantage of nations," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 49(9).
    4. Cristelli, Gabriele & Lissoni, Francesco, 2020. "Free movement of inventors: open-border policy and innovation in Switzerland," MPRA Paper 107433, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    5. Cristelli, Gabriele & Lissoni, Francesco, 2020. "Free movement of inventors: open-border policy and innovation in Switzerland," MPRA Paper 104120, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    6. Ferrucci, Edoardo & Lissoni, Francesco, 2019. "Foreign inventors in Europe and the United States: Diversity and Patent Quality," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 48(9), pages 1-1.
    7. Ron Boschma, 2021. "Global Value Chains from an Evolutionary Economic Geography perspective: a research agenda," Papers in Evolutionary Economic Geography (PEEG) 2134, Utrecht University, Department of Human Geography and Spatial Planning, Group Economic Geography, revised Nov 2021.
    8. Pinheiro, Flávio L. & Hartmann, Dominik & Boschma, Ron & Hidalgo, César A., 2022. "The time and frequency of unrelated diversification," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 51(8).
    9. Matthias Niggli, 2022. "'Moving On' -- Investigating Inventors' Ethnic Origins Using Supervised Learning," Papers 2201.00578, arXiv.org.
    10. Diego Useche & Ernest Miguelez & Francesco Lissoni, 2020. "Highly skilled and well connected: Migrant inventors in cross-border M&As," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 51(5), pages 737-763, July.
    11. Caviggioli, Federico & Jensen, Paul & Scellato, Giuseppe, 2020. "Highly skilled migrants and technological diversification in the US and Europe," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 154(C).
    12. Roberta Capello & Camilla Lenzi, 2019. "The nexus between inventors’ mobility and regional growth across European regions," Journal of Geographical Systems, Springer, vol. 21(4), pages 457-486, December.
    13. Diego Useche & Ernest Miguelez & Francesco Lissoni, 2019. "Highly skilled and well connected: Migrant inventors in cross-border M&As," Post-Print halshs-02024499, HAL.
    14. Fassio, Claudio & Montobbio, Fabio & Venturini, Alessandra, 2019. "Skilled migration and innovation in European industries," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 48(3), pages 706-718.
    15. Marino, Alba & Mudambi, Ram & Perri, Alessandra & Scalera, Vittoria G., 2020. "Ties that bind: Ethnic inventors in multinational enterprises’ knowledge integration and exploitation," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 49(9).
    16. Ron Boschma, 2021. "Designing Smart Specialization Policy: relatedness, unrelatedness, or what?," Papers in Evolutionary Economic Geography (PEEG) 2128, Utrecht University, Department of Human Geography and Spatial Planning, Group Economic Geography, revised Sep 2021.
    17. Edoardo Ferrucci & Francesco Lissoni & Ernest Miguelez, 2020. "Coming from afar and picking a man’s job:Women immigrant inventors in the United States," Working Papers hal-03098102, HAL.
    18. Dario Diodato & Andrea Morrison & Sergio Petralia, 2022. "Migration and invention in the Age of Mass Migration [Immigration in American economic history]," Journal of Economic Geography, Oxford University Press, vol. 22(2), pages 477-498.
    19. Ceren Ozgen, 2021. "The economics of diversity: Innovation, productivity and the labour market," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 35(4), pages 1168-1216, September.
    20. Ron Boschma, 2018. "The geographical dimension of structural change," Papers in Evolutionary Economic Geography (PEEG) 1839, Utrecht University, Department of Human Geography and Spatial Planning, Group Economic Geography, revised Nov 2018.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    patents; migration; technological diversification; relatedness; Europe;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • O30 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - General
    • F20 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - General
    • F60 - International Economics - - Economic Impacts of Globalization - - - General

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:egu:wpaper:2125. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/deguunl.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: The email address of this maintainer does not seem to be valid anymore. Please ask the person in charge to update the entry or send us the correct address (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/deguunl.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.