Real Options: Taking Stock and Looking Ahead
We discuss recent developments in real options theory and its applications to strategic management research, examine the potential difficulties in implementing real options in theory and practice, and propose several areas for future research. Our review shows that real options theory has provided important insights into investment and exit decisions as well as into the choice of investment modes. In addition, extant research studies have contributed substantially to our understanding of whether and how organizations can benefit from real options. Future research that addresses difficulties in applications will further advance both real options theory and practice in strategic management.
|Date of creation:||2006|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Web page: http://www.business.uiuc.edu/Working_Papers/Main.asp|
More information through EDIRC
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Chi, T. & Nystrom, P. C., 1995. "Decision dilemmas facing managers: recognizing the value of learning while making sequential decisions," Omega, Elsevier, vol. 23(3), pages 303-312, June.
- Avinash Dixit, 1992. "Investment and Hysteresis," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 6(1), pages 107-132, Winter.
- Avinash K. Dixit & Robert S. Pindyck, 1998.
"Expandability, Reversibility, and Optimal Capacity Choice,"
NBER Working Papers
6373, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Dixit, Avinash K. & Pindyck, Robert S. & Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research., 2003. "Expandability, reversibility, and optimal capacity choice," Working papers 97-006WP., Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Sloan School of Management.
- Dixit, A., 1988.
"Entry And Exit Decisions Under Uncertainty,"
91, Princeton, Department of Economics - Financial Research Center.
- McDonald, Robert & Siegel, Daniel, 1986. "The Value of Waiting to Invest," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 101(4), pages 707-27, November.
- Eduardo S. Schwartz, 2003. "Patents and R&D as Real Options," NBER Working Papers 10114, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Robert S. Pindyck, 1992.
"Investments of Uncertain Cost,"
NBER Working Papers
4175, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Trigeorgis, Lenos, 1991. "Anticipated competitive entry and early preemptive investment in deferrable projects," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 43(2), pages 143-156, May.
- Jos� Manuel Campa, 1994. "Multinational Investment under Uncertainty in the Chemical Processing Industries," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 25(3), pages 557-578, September.
- Bernardo, Antonio E. & Chowdhry, Bhagwan, 2002. "Resources, real options, and corporate strategy," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 63(2), pages 211-234, February.
- M. L. Weitzman & K. Roberts, 1979.
"Funding Criteria for Research, Development and Exploration Projects,"
234, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Economics.
- Roberts, Kevin & Weitzman, Martin L, 1981. "Funding Criteria for Research, Development, and Exploration Projects," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 49(5), pages 1261-88, September.
- Linda Allen & Christos Pantzalis, 1996. "Valuation of the operating Flexibility of Multinational Corporations," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 27(4), pages 633-653, December.
- Favero, Carlo A & Pesaran, M Hashem & Sharma, Sunil, 1994. "A Duration Model of Irreversible Oil Investment: Theory and Empirical Evidence," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 9(S), pages S95-112, Suppl. De.
- Luigi Guiso & Giuseppe Parigi, 1999.
"Investment And Demand Uncertainty,"
The Quarterly Journal of Economics,
MIT Press, vol. 114(1), pages 185-227, February.
- Tailan Chi & Donald J McGuire, 1996. "Collaborative Ventures and Value of Learning: Integrating the Transaction Cost and Strategic Option Perspectives on the Choice of Market Entry Modes," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 27(2), pages 285-307, June.
- Merton H. Miller & Franco Modigliani, 1961. "Dividend Policy, Growth, and the Valuation of Shares," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 34, pages 411.
- Myers, Stewart C., 1977. "Determinants of corporate borrowing," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 5(2), pages 147-175, November.
- Coff, Russell W. & Laverty, Kevin J., 2001. "Real options on knowledge assets: Panacea or Pandora's box?," Business Horizons, Elsevier, vol. 44(6), pages 73-79.
- Campa, Joe Manuel, 1993. "Entry by Foreign Firms in the United States under Exchange Rate Uncertainty," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 75(4), pages 614-22, November.
- Han T. J. Smit & L. A. Ankum, 1993. "A Real Options and Game-Theoretic Approach to," Financial Management, Financial Management Association, vol. 22(3), Fall.
- Pindyck, Robert S, 1988.
"Irreversible Investment, Capacity Choice, and the Value of the Firm,"
American Economic Review,
American Economic Association, vol. 78(5), pages 969-85, December.
- Pindyck, Robert S., 1986. "Irreversible investment, capacity choice, and the value of the firm," Working papers 1802-86., Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Sloan School of Management.
- Robert S. Pindyck, 1986. "Irreversible Investment, Capacity Choice, and the Value of the Firm," NBER Working Papers 1980, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Baldwin, Richard, 1988.
"Hyteresis in Import Prices: The Beachhead Effect,"
American Economic Review,
American Economic Association, vol. 78(4), pages 773-85, September.
- Pietra Rivoli & Eugene Salorio, 1996. "Foreign Direct Investment and Investment under Uncertainty," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 27(2), pages 335-357, June.
- Kent D Miller & Jeffrey J Reuer, 1998. "Firm Strategy and Economic Exposure to Foreign Exchange Rate Movements," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 29(3), pages 493-513, September.
- Bruce Kogut, 1991. "Joint Ventures and the Option to Expand and Acquire," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 37(1), pages 19-33, January.
- Subramanian Rangan, 1998. "Do Multinationals Operate Flexibly? Theory and Evidence," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 29(2), pages 217-237, June.
- Berger, Philip G. & Ofek, Eli & Swary, Itzhak, 1996. "Investor valuation of the abandonment option," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 42(2), pages 257-287, October.
- Lander, Diane M. & Pinches, George E., 1998. "Challenges to the Practical Implementation of Modeling and Valuing Real Options," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 38(3, Part 2), pages 537-567.
- Bruce Kogut & Nalin Kulatilaka, 1994. "Operating Flexibility, Global Manufacturing, and the Option Value of a Multinational Network," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 40(1), pages 123-139, January.
- Folta, Timothy B. & Johnson, Douglas R. & O'Brien, Jonathan, 2006. "Uncertainty, irreversibility, and the likelihood of entry: An empirical assessment of the option to defer," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 61(3), pages 432-452, November.
- Anil Arya & Jonathan Glover & Bryan R. Routledge, 2002. "Project Assignment Rights and Incentives for Eliciting Ideas," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 48(7), pages 886-899, July.
- Carruth, Alan & Dickerson, Andrew & Henley, Andrew, 2000.
" What Do We Know about Investment under Uncertainty?,"
Journal of Economic Surveys,
Wiley Blackwell, vol. 14(2), pages 119-53, April.
- Alan Carruth & Andy Dickerson & Andrew Henley, 1998. "What Do We Know About Investment Under Uncertainty?," Studies in Economics 9804, School of Economics, University of Kent.
- Trigeorgis, Lenos, 1993. "The Nature of Option Interactions and the Valuation of Investments with Multiple Real Options," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 28(01), pages 1-20, March.
- Robert C. Merton, 1973. "Theory of Rational Option Pricing," Bell Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 4(1), pages 141-183, Spring.
- Hurn, A S & Wright, Robert E, 1994. "Geology or Economics? Testing Models of Irreversible Investment Using North Sea Oil Data," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 104(423), pages 363-71, March.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ecl:illbus:06-0114. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: ()
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.