Chinese Outward Foreign Direct Investment in Developed and Developing Countries: Converging Characteristics?
The spectacular surge in Chinese outward foreign direct investment (OFDI) has been reinforced by China’s accession to the WTO (2001). The understanding of their determinants remains a key theoretical question, in particular whether they confirm the standard conceptual framework - ‘ownership’, ‘location’, ‘internalisation’ (OLI) and ‘linkages’ (augmenting competences by learning). The paper argues that the determinants of Chinese OFDI change over time and converge toward global strategies, via a comparison between Chinese OFDI in developed countries (based on an original database of 1800 investment operations in Europe from 2002 onwards) and in developing countries (Sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America). While their impacts indeed vary according to countries’ contexts, Chinese OFDI in developed and developing countries converges toward complex and similar motives, become more mature through the combination of various modes of entry (greenfield and mergers-and-acquisitions), and exhibit more commonalities than differences. The comparison thus demonstrates that while the determinants of Chinese OFDI in developed countries were initially access to their markets, they now include efficiency-seeking motives (dispersing design, R&D and production) and assets-seeking (or augmenting assets) motives, the latter’s prevalence in developed countries (e.g., patents, skills, brands) remaining a contrast with developing countries. Chinese OFDI in developing countries is mostly driven by resource-seeking motives (strategic inputs for China’s growth), but also in resource-endowed developed countries (Australia, Canada). Large investments are driven by Chinese state-backed firms both in developed and developing countries. The growing number of Chinese small and medium private enterprises which invest in developing countries (e.g., Sub-Saharan Africa) shows that market access has increasingly become a determinant of OFDI, together with efficiency - and assets-seeking motives - rising labour costs in China being incentives for relocating abroad, in particular in labour-intensive sectors where competitiveness is driven by prices. Chinese firms often conduct these various strategies simultaneously.
|Date of creation:||2013|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: |
Web page: http://economix.fr
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Fernandez, Raquel & Rodrik, Dani, 1991. "Resistance to Reform: Status Quo Bias in the Presence of Individual-Specific Uncertainty," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 81(5), pages 1146-55, December.
- Carlos RodrÃguez & Ricardo Bustillo, 2011. "A Critical Revision of the Empirical Literature on Chinese Outward Investment: A New Proposal," Panoeconomicus, Savez ekonomista Vojvodine, Novi Sad, Serbia, vol. 58(5), pages 715-733, December.
- Manuel Agosin & Roberto Machado, 2007. "Openness and the International allocation of foreign direct investment," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 43(7), pages 1234-1247.
- Abramovitz, Moses, 1986. "Catching Up, Forging Ahead, and Falling Behind," The Journal of Economic History, Cambridge University Press, vol. 46(02), pages 385-406, June.
- Yin-Wong Cheung & Jakob de Haan & XingWang Qian & Shu Yu, 2011.
"China's Outward Direct Investment in Africa,"
132011, Hong Kong Institute for Monetary Research.
- Raphael Kaplinsky & Mike Morris, 2009. "The Asian Drivers and SSA: Is There a Future for Export-oriented African Industrialisation?," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 32(11), pages 1638-1655, November.
- Johanna Jansson, 2013. "The Sicomines agreement revisited: prudent Chinese banks and risk-taking Chinese companies," Review of African Political Economy, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 40(135), pages 152-162, March.
- Baldwin, Richard, 2012.
"Trade and industrialisation after globalisation’s 2nd unbundling: How building and joining a supply chain are different and why it matters,"
CEPR Discussion Papers
8768, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Richard Baldwin, 2011. "Trade And Industrialisation After Globalisation's 2nd Unbundling: How Building And Joining A Supply Chain Are Different And Why It Matters," NBER Working Papers 17716, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Peter Kragelund, 2009. "Knocking on a Wide-open Door: Chinese Investments in Africa," Review of African Political Economy, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 36(122), pages 479-497, December.
- Raphael Kaplinsky & Mike Morris, 2009. "Chinese FDI in Sub-Saharan Africa: Engaging with Large Dragons," The European Journal of Development Research, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 21(4), pages 551-569, September.
- Christian Milelli & Françoise Hay, 2008. "Chinese and Indian firms’ entry into Europe: characteristics, impacts and policy implications," EconomiX Working Papers 2008-35, University of Paris West - Nanterre la Défense, EconomiX.
- Françoise Hay & Christian Milelli, 2013. "The endless quest to strategic assets by Chinese firms through FDI:From Inward to Outward Flows," EconomiX Working Papers 2013-16, University of Paris West - Nanterre la Défense, EconomiX.
- Blomstrom, Magnus & Kokko, Ari, 1997. "Regional integration and foreign direct investment : a conceptual framework and three cases," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1750, The World Bank.
- Julia Kubny & Florian MÃ¶lders & Peter Nunnenkamp, 2011.
"Regional Integration and FDI in Emerging Markets,"
in: Regional Integration, Economic Development and Global Governance, chapter 8
- Marco Sanfilippo, 2010. "Chinese FDI to Africa: What Is the Nexus with Foreign Economic Cooperation?," African Development Review, African Development Bank, vol. 22(S1), pages 599-614.
- Nicholas R. Lardy, 2012. "Sustaining China's Economic Growth after the Global Financial Crisis," Peterson Institute Press: All Books, Peterson Institute for International Economics, number 6260, December.
- Alessia Amighini, Marco Sanfilippo and Roberta Rabellotti, 2012. "Do Chinese SOEs and private companies differ in their foreign location strategies?," RSCAS Working Papers 2012/27, European University Institute.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:drm:wpaper:2013-34. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Valérie Mignon)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.