Capital Flows, Capital Account Regimes, and Foreign Exchange Rate Regimes in Africa
This study examines capital flows and shifts in capital account and exchange rate regimes in African countries over the past two decades. The evidence shows that official lending to Africa has declined while the volume of private capital flows remains low and significantly below the levels observed in other developing regions. Private capital inflows to Africa are limited due to several factors, including the weakness of the macroeconomic environment, underdeveloped financial systems, high country risk, and exchange rate misalignments. The focus of policy reforms must be on alleviating these constraints in order to attract more foreign capital and overcome the shortage of development financing. Many African countries have pursued reforms aimed at liberalizing their capital account and exchange rate regimes. However, liberalization has not been accompanied by systematic gains income growth, price stability, and trade performance. African countries must pay serious attention to the scope, speed, and sequencing of capital account liberalization to minimize potential adverse effects of openness. It is desirable for countries to maintain selective discretionary control over capital movements and exchange rate markets in order to hedge against adverse shocks to the economy and to maintain macroeconomic and financial stability. To attract foreign capital, any move toward capital account openness and exchange rate liberalization must be supported by reforms aimed at improving credibility of macroeconomic policy and establishing an investment-friendly environment. These reforms will not only attract foreign capital but also encourage domestic investment. An important aspect of capital movements in Africa is the high level of capital flight. There is an urgent need for policies to stem further hemorrage of capital from Africa and induce the repatriation of private capital held abroad. This will require not only improvement of the macroeconomic conditions to ameliorate incentives for domestic investment, but also reform of the political and legal systems to improve accountability and credibility of economic policy.
|Date of creation:||2003|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: |
Phone: (413) 545-6355
Fax: (413) 545-2921
Web page: http://www.peri.umass.edu/Email:
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Michel Galy & Michael T. Hadjimichael, 1997. "The CFA Franc Zone and the EMU," IMF Working Papers 97/156, International Monetary Fund.
- Arvind Subramanian, 1997. "The Egyptian Stabilization Experience; An Analytical Retrospective," IMF Working Papers 97/105, International Monetary Fund.
- Savvides, Andreas, 1996. "CFA Franc Zone Membership and Exchange Rate Variability," Journal of African Economies, Centre for the Study of African Economies (CSAE), vol. 5(1), pages 52-68, March.
- Collier, Paul & Hoeffler, Anke & Pattillo, Catherine, 1999.
"Flight capital as a portfolio choice,"
Policy Research Working Paper Series
2066, The World Bank.
- Atish R. Ghosh & Anne-Marie Gulde & Jonathan D. Ostry & Holger C. Wolf, 1997.
"Does the Nominal Exchange Rate Regime Matter?,"
NBER Working Papers
5874, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Jonathan David Ostry & Anne Marie Gulde & Atish R. Ghosh & Holger C. Wolf, 1995. "Does the Nominal Exchange Rate Regime Matter?," IMF Working Papers 95/121, International Monetary Fund.
- Atish R. Ghosh & Anne-Marie Gulde & Jonathan D. Ostry & Holger C. Wolf, 1997. "Does The Nominal Exchange Rate Regime Matter?," Working Papers 97-09, New York University, Leonard N. Stern School of Business, Department of Economics.
- Singh, Ajit & Weisse, Bruce A., 1998.
"Emerging stock markets, portfolio capital flows and long-term economie growth: Micro and macroeconomic perspectives,"
Elsevier, vol. 26(4), pages 607-622, April.
- Singh, A. & Weisse, B. A., 1998. "Emerging Stock Markets, Portfolio Capital Flows and Long-term Economic Growth: Micro and Macroeconomic Perspectives," Accounting and Finance Discussion Papers 98-af40, Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.
- Maurice Obstfeld & Kenneth Rogoff, 1995.
"The Mirage of Fixed Exchange Rates,"
NBER Working Papers
5191, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Reinhart, Carmen & Calvo, Guillermo, 2002.
"Fear of floating,"
14000, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Léonce Ndikumana, 2001. "Financial Markets and Economic Development in Africa," Working Papers wp17, Political Economy Research Institute, University of Massachusetts at Amherst.
- Jan Willem Gunning & Paul Collier, 1999.
"Explaining African Economic Performance,"
Journal of Economic Literature,
American Economic Association, vol. 37(1), pages 64-111, March.
- Paul Collier & Jan Willem Gunning, 1998. "Explaining African economic performance," Economics Series Working Papers WPS/1997-02.2, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
- Paul Collier & Jan Willem Gunning, 1997. "Explaining African economic performance," CSAE Working Paper Series 1997-02.2, Centre for the Study of African Economies, University of Oxford.
- Noureddine Krichene, 1998. "Purchasing Power Parities in Five East African Countries; Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Uganda," IMF Working Papers 98/148, International Monetary Fund.
- Andrew Berg & Paolo Mauro & Michael Mussa & Alexander K. Swoboda & Esteban Jadresic & Paul R. Masson, 2000. "Exchange Rate Regimes in an Increasingly Integrated World Economy," IMF Occasional Papers 193, International Monetary Fund.
- E. Gelbard & SÃ©rgio Pereira. Leite, 1999. "Measuring Financial Development in Sub-Saharan Africa," IMF Working Papers 99/105, International Monetary Fund.
- Singh, Ajit, 1998.
"Should Africa Promote Stock Market Capitalism?,"
51846, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Joannes Mongardini, 1998. "Estimating Egypt's Equilibrium Real Exchange Rate," IMF Working Papers 98/5, International Monetary Fund.
- Lensink, Robert & Hermes, Niels & Murinde, Victor, 2000.
"Capital flight and political risk,"
Journal of International Money and Finance,
Elsevier, vol. 19(1), pages 73-92, February.
- Akira Ariyoshi & Andrei Kirilenko & Inci Ã–tker & Bernard Laurens & Jorge IvÃ¡n Canales Kriljenko & Karl Friedrich Habermeier, 2000. "Capital Controls; Country Experiences with Their Use and Liberalization," IMF Occasional Papers 190, International Monetary Fund.
- Lensink, Robert & Hermes, Niels & Murinde, Victor, 1998. "The Effect of Financial Liberalization on Capital Flight in African Economies," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 26(7), pages 1349-1368, July.
- Reinhart, Carmen & Calvo, Guillermo, 1999. "Capital Flow Reversals,the Exchange Rate Debate,and Dollarization," MPRA Paper 8951, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Honohan, Patrick & Lane, Philip R., 2000.
"Will the Euro trigger more monetary unions in Africa?,"
Policy Research Working Paper Series
2393, The World Bank.
- Honohan, P. & Lane, P.R., 2000. "Will the Euro Trigger More Monetary Unions in Africa?," Research Paper 176, World Institute for Development Economics Research.
- Mauro Mecagni & Maged Sawky Sourial, 1999. "The Egyptian Stock Market; Efficiency Tests and Volatility Effects," IMF Working Papers 99/48, International Monetary Fund.
- Guillaumont, Patrick & Guillaumont, Sylviane & Plane, Patrick, 1988. "Participating in African monetary unions: An alternative evaluation," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 16(5), pages 569-576, May.
- Eduardo Borensztein & Andrew Berg, 2000. "The Pros and Cons of Full Dollarization," IMF Working Papers 00/50, International Monetary Fund.
- Azam, Jean-Paul, 1999. "Dollars for Sale: Exchange Rate Policy and Inflation in Africa," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 27(10), pages 1843-1859, October.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:uma:periwp:wp55. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Judy Fogg)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.