IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/dpr/wpaper/0745.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Input specificity and product differentiation

Author

Listed:
  • Noriaki Matsushima
  • Tomomichi Mizuno

Abstract

Using a simple product differentiation model with elastic demands, we investigate the relationship between differentiation strategies and vertical relations. Depending on the competitive structure in the upstream market, three differentiation patterns (maximum, minimum and partial differentiation) can appear in equilibrium even though each downstream firm freely determines the degree of product differentiation. When downstream firms must incur positive investment costs to differentiate their products, they tend to do so if the upstream market is competitive.

Suggested Citation

  • Noriaki Matsushima & Tomomichi Mizuno, 2009. "Input specificity and product differentiation," ISER Discussion Paper 0745, Institute of Social and Economic Research, Osaka University.
  • Handle: RePEc:dpr:wpaper:0745
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://www.iser.osaka-u.ac.jp/library/dp/2009/DP0745.pdf
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. John R. Hauser & Steven M. Shugan, 2008. "Defensive Marketing Strategies," Marketing Science, INFORMS, vol. 27(1), pages 88-110, 01-02.
    2. Noriaki Matsushima, 2009. "Vertical Mergers And Product Differentiation," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 57(4), pages 812-834, December.
    3. Erkal, Nisvan, 2007. "Buyer-supplier interaction, asset specificity, and product choice," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 25(5), pages 988-1010, October.
    4. Eaton, B Curtis & Schmitt, Nicolas, 1994. "Flexible Manufacturing and Market Structure," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 84(4), pages 875-888, September.
    5. Stefan Buehler & Armin Schmutzler, 2004. "Intimidating Competitors � Endogenous Vertical Integration and Downstream Investment in Successive Oligopoly," SOI - Working Papers 0409, Socioeconomic Institute - University of Zurich, revised Jul 2005.
    6. George Norman & Jacques‐François Thisse, 1999. "Technology Choice and Market Structure: strategic aspects of flexible manufacturing," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 47(3), pages 345-372, September.
    7. Paul Belleflamme & Eric Toulemonde, 2003. "Product differentiation in successive vertical oligopolies," Canadian Journal of Economics/Revue canadienne d'économique, John Wiley & Sons, vol. 36(3), pages 523-545, August.
    8. Lambertini, Luca & Poddar, Sougata & Sasaki, Dan, 1998. "Standardization and the stability of collusion," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 58(3), pages 303-310, March.
    9. Lynne Pepall & George Norman, 2001. "Product Differentiation and Upstream‐Downstream Relations," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 10(2), pages 201-233, June.
    10. Matsushima, Noriaki, 2004. "Technology of upstream firms and equilibrium product differentiation," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 22(8-9), pages 1091-1114, November.
    11. Andrea Mantovani, 2006. "Complementarity between product and process innovation in a monopoly setting," Economics of Innovation and New Technology, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 15(3), pages 219-234.
    12. Rosenkranz, Stephanie, 2003. "Simultaneous choice of process and product innovation when consumers have a preference for product variety," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 50(2), pages 183-201, February.
    13. Aiura, Hiroshi & Sato, Yasuhiro, 2008. "Welfare properties of spatial competition with location-dependent costs," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 38(1), pages 32-48, January.
    14. Lars-Hendrik Röller & Mihkel M. Tombak, 1993. "Competition and Investment in Flexible Technologies," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 39(1), pages 107-114, January.
    15. Bonaccorsi, Andrea & Giuri, Paola, 2001. "The long-term evolution of vertically-related industries," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 19(7), pages 1053-1083, July.
    16. Lin, Ping & Saggi, Kamal, 2002. "Product differentiation, process R&D, and the nature of market competition," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 46(1), pages 201-211, January.
    17. Milliou, Chrysovalantou, 2004. "Vertical integration and R&D information flow: is there a need for 'firewalls'?," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 22(1), pages 25-43, January.
    18. d'Aspremont, C & Gabszewicz, Jean Jaskold & Thisse, J-F, 1979. "On Hotelling's "Stability in Competition"," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 47(5), pages 1145-1150, September.
    19. Tombak, Mihkel M., 2006. "Strategic asymmetry," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 61(3), pages 339-350, November.
    20. Barry Nalebuff, 2002. "Bundling and the GE-Honeywell Merger," Yale School of Management Working Papers ysm303, Yale School of Management.
    21. Sebastian Braun, 2008. "Economic Integration, Process and Product Innovation, and Relative Skill Demand," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 16(5), pages 864-873, November.
    22. Juan Bárcena-Ruiz & F. Casado-Izaga, 2008. "Timing of endogenous bargaining over costs and firms’ locations," Journal of Economics, Springer, vol. 95(2), pages 149-166, November.
    23. Norman, George & Thisse, Jacques-Francois, 1999. "Technology Choice and Market Structure: Strategic Aspects of Flexible Manufacturing," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 47(3), pages 345-372, September.
    24. Brekke, Kurt R. & Straume, Odd Rune, 2004. "Bilateral monopolies and location choice," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(3), pages 275-288, May.
    25. Cellini, Roberto & Lambertini, Luca, 2002. "A differential game approach to investment in product differentiation," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 27(1), pages 51-62, November.
    26. Brocas, Isabelle, 2003. "Vertical integration and incentives to innovate," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 21(4), pages 457-488, April.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Noriaki Matsushima, 2009. "Vertical Mergers And Product Differentiation," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 57(4), pages 812-834, December.
    2. Zanchettin, Piercarlo & Mukherjee, Arijit, 2017. "Vertical integration and product differentiation," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 55(C), pages 25-57.
    3. Lambertini, Luca & Mantovani, Andrea, 2009. "Process and product innovation by a multiproduct monopolist: A dynamic approach," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 27(4), pages 508-518, July.
    4. Erkal, Nisvan, 2007. "Buyer-supplier interaction, asset specificity, and product choice," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 25(5), pages 988-1010, October.
    5. José Pontes, 2007. "Networks and firm location," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer;Western Regional Science Association, vol. 41(4), pages 897-909, December.
    6. Takeshi Ebina & Noriaki Matsushima, 2017. "Product differentiation and entry timing in a continuous-time spatial competition model with vertical relations," ISER Discussion Paper 1009, Institute of Social and Economic Research, Osaka University.
    7. Yen-Ju Lin & Yan-Shu Lin & Kuang-I Tu, 2016. "Strategic input outsourcing and equilibrium location choice," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer;Western Regional Science Association, vol. 56(1), pages 83-99, January.
    8. Kourandi, Frago & Vettas, Nikolaos, 2010. "Endogenous Spatial Differentiation with Vertical Contracting," CEPR Discussion Papers 7948, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    9. Matsushima, Noriaki, 2004. "Technology of upstream firms and equilibrium product differentiation," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 22(8-9), pages 1091-1114, November.
    10. Paul Belleflamme & Eric Toulemonde, 2003. "Product differentiation in successive vertical oligopolies," Canadian Journal of Economics/Revue canadienne d'économique, John Wiley & Sons, vol. 36(3), pages 523-545, August.
    11. Toshihiro Matsumura & Noriaki Matsushima, 2007. "On patent licensing in spatial competition with endogenous location choice," Discussion Papers 2007-35, Kobe University, Graduate School of Business Administration.
    12. Norman, George, 2002. "The relative advantages of flexible versus designated manufacturing technologies," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(4), pages 419-445, July.
    13. Luca Lambertini & Andrea Mantovani, 2010. "Process and product innovation: A differential game approach to product life cycle," International Journal of Economic Theory, The International Society for Economic Theory, vol. 6(2), pages 227-252, June.
    14. Youping Li & Jie Shuai, 2018. "A Welfare Analysis of Location Space Constraints with Vertically Separated Sellers," Review of Industrial Organization, Springer;The Industrial Organization Society, vol. 52(1), pages 161-177, February.
    15. Yen-Ju Lin & Yan-Shu Lin & Kuang-I Tu, 2016. "Strategic input outsourcing and equilibrium location choice," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer;Western Regional Science Association, vol. 56(1), pages 83-99, January.
    16. Matteo Bassi & Marco Pagnozzi & Salvatore Piccolo, 2015. "Product Differentiation by Competing Vertical Hierarchies," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 24(4), pages 904-933, October.
    17. Jie Li & Xianhai Huang, 2013. "When to Initiate an International Vertical Merger? The Impact of Negative Demand Shock," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 36(7), pages 843-860, July.
    18. Carsten Eckel & J. Peter Neary, 2010. "Multi-Product Firms and Flexible Manufacturing in the Global Economy," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 77(1), pages 188-217.
    19. Carsten Eckel, 2009. "International trade, flexible manufacturing, and outsourcing," Canadian Journal of Economics/Revue canadienne d'économique, John Wiley & Sons, vol. 42(4), pages 1449-1472, November.
    20. P. Giannoccolo & C. Vergari, 2015. "Revealing incentives for vertical integration in the presence of glocal policies," Working Papers wp1015, Dipartimento Scienze Economiche, Universita' di Bologna.

    More about this item

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:dpr:wpaper:0745. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/isosujp.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Librarian (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/isosujp.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.