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Mesurer les inégalités : que captent réellement les enquêtes ? Analyse de deux enquêtes ivoirienne et malgache

  • Charlotte Guénard

    ()

    (DIAL et IEDES)

  • Sandrine Mesplé-Somps

    ()

    (DIAL, IRD, Paris)

Outre les choix méthodologiques effectués en amont du calcul des agrégats de consommation et de revenu et le non apurement des fichiers de base, plusieurs sources de biais conditionnent la mesure des niveaux de vie et leur distribution. Dans la présente étude appliquée à deux enquêtes malgache et ivoirienne, ces biais ont été identifiés en effectuant plusieurs scénarios de calculs des agrégats de niveau de vie, en analysant la cohérence interne des enquêtes et en confrontant les données d’enquêtes avec d’autres sources de données (comptes nationaux et balances des paiements). Les questions de méthode n’ont finalement pas de grandes incidences, à l’exception de la prise en compte ou non des prix régionaux. Les biais de sous-déclaration, bien qu’importants ne sont pas aisés à redresser, notamment par la méthode d’imputation multiple. Cependant, on montre que les niveaux de revenu moyens dans les deux enquêtes étudiées semblent sous-évalués de 15 à 50 %. Les différentes corrections amènent les niveaux d’inégalité des deux pays vers des niveaux similaires à ceux des pays les plus inégalitaires tels que le Brésil. _________________________________ Apart from the fact that methodological choices influence the measurement of standard of living and its distribution, it is well known that several measurement errors bias also household survey data: errors of sampling, unit non- response, items non-response and selective observation. The aim of this work is to detect carefully all these bias in two household survey data (EPM93 Malagasy survey an ENV98 Ivorian survey) and to try to correct them. The analysis of the measurement errors has been done, firstly by checking the consistency between consumption and income information, and secondly by confronting household data with others sources of data like National Accounts and the Balance of Payments data. Several adjustments are proposed. It seems that standard of living are under estimated up to 15 % and 50 % and that inequality levels in both countries are nearer to level of countries like Brazil than it is said by standard evaluation.

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File URL: http://www.dial.ird.fr/media/ird-sites-d-unites-de-recherche/dial/documents/publications/doc_travail/2004/2004-13
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Paper provided by DIAL (Développement, Institutions et Mondialisation) in its series Working Papers with number DT/2004/13.

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Length: 47 pages
Date of creation: Dec 2004
Date of revision: Dec 2004
Handle: RePEc:dia:wpaper:dt200413
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