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L’économie ivoirienne, la fin du mirage ?

Listed author(s):
  • Denis Cogneau


    (DIAL, IRD, Paris)

  • Sandrine Mesplé-Somps


    (DIAL, IRD, Paris)

This document is a new version of a study on Ivory Coast started in 1997 as part of a programme of the OCDE Development Centre called “Emerging Africa”. This work is an historical analysis of the Ivorian economy since the independence of the country. The economic growth period between 1994 and 1998 is compared to other similar economic growth periods and also to stabilisation policies and structural reforms of the 80’s. This period was exceptional and a big opportunity to start more structural reform policies. Unfortunately, the main problems were not solved. The economic system is still suffering from a neocolonial and unequal system of distribution of wealth. The economic growth was not used to develop anti-poverty policies. Inequality and social problems increased and also undermined the legitimacy of the government since 1999. The first section of the paper analyses previous and present performances of the Ivorian economy, and the long-term growth factors. In section 2, the macro-economic stabilisation issues are discussed. Successively, pre and post devaluation stabilisation reforms, as well as the sustainability of the foreign debt are analysed. The aim of section 3 is to discuss the reforms of the banking system, trade liberalisation and domestic market reforms. Finally, income and poverty dynamics and a critical view of the social policies are presented in section 4. _________________________________ Ce document est tiré d’une étude réalisée sur la Côte d’Ivoire dans le cadre du programme « Afrique émergente » du Centre de Développement de l’OCDE. Ce travail fait le point sur la trajectoire économique du pays depuis son indépendance. On montre à quel point la croissance de 1994-98 était exceptionnelle et en quoi cette période a créé des opportunités réelles de refonte du système économique ivoirien. Cependant, les réformes de stabilisation et de libéralisation poursuivies entre les années 1980 et la fin des années 1990 n’ont pu résorber les principaux problèmes structurels qui contraignent la croissance économique et sa répartition, et caractérisent un système néo-colonial d’extraction et de distribution des rentes. La section 1 présente une analyse des performances passées et présentes de l'économie ivoirienne ainsi qu’une analyse des facteurs de la croissance à long terme. Les questions de stabilisation macro-économique et de soutenabilité de la dette extérieure ivoirienne sont abordées dans la section 2. La section 3 se consacre aux réformes structurelles : réformes du secteur bancaire, politiques de commerce international, mesures visant à améliorer le fonctionnement des marchés intérieurs des produits et du travail, et les relations entre l'Etat et les entreprises privées. L’analyse de la dynamique des niveaux de vie, de la pauvreté et les questions de politiques de lutte contre la pauvreté font l’objet de la section 4.

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Paper provided by DIAL (Développement, Institutions et Mondialisation) in its series Working Papers with number DT/2002/18.

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Length: 98 pages
Date of creation: Dec 2002
Handle: RePEc:dia:wpaper:dt200218
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