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Short and long run causality measures: theory and inference

  • Jean-Marie Dufour

    ()

  • Abderrahim Taamouti

    ()

The concept of causality introduced by Wiener (1956) and Granger (1969) is defined in terms of predictability one period ahead. This concept can be generalized by considering causality at a given horizon h, and causality up to any given horizon h [Dufour and Renault (1998)]. This generalization is motivated by the fact that, in the presence of an auxiliary variable vector Z, it is possible that a variable Y does not cause variable X at horizon 1, but causes it at horizon h > 1. In this case, there is an indirect causality transmitted by Z. Another related problem consists in measuring the importance of causality between two variables. Existing causality measures have been defined only for the horizon 1 and fail to capture indirect causal effects. This paper proposes a generalization of such measures for any horizon h. We propose nonparametric and parametric measures of unidirectional and instantaneous causality at any horizon h. Parametric measures are defined in the context of autoregressive processes of unknown order and expressed in terms of impulse response coefficients. On noting that causality measures typically involve complex functions of model parameters in VAR and VARMA models, we propose a simple method to evaluate these measures which is based on the simulation of a large sample from the process of interest. We also describe asymptotically valid nonparametric confidence intervals, using a bootstrap technique. Finally, the proposed measures are applied to study causality relations at different horizons between macroeconomic, monetary and financial variables in the U.S. These results show that there is a strong effect of nonborrowed reserves on federal funds rate one month ahead, the effect of real gross domestic product on federal funds rate is economically important for the first three months, the effect of federal funds rate on gross domestic product deflator is economically weak one month ahead, and finally federal fundsrate causes the real gross domestic product until 16 months.

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Paper provided by Universidad Carlos III, Departamento de Economía in its series Economics Working Papers with number we083720.

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Date of creation: Jul 2008
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Handle: RePEc:cte:werepe:we083720
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  1. Paparoditis, Efstathios, 1996. "Bootstrapping Autoregressive and Moving Average Parameter Estimates of Infinite Order Vector Autoregressive Processes," Journal of Multivariate Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 57(2), pages 277-296, May.
  2. DUFOUR, Jean-Marie & PELLETIER, Denis & RENAULT, Éric, 2003. "Short run and long run causality in time series: Inference," Cahiers de recherche 2003-16, Universite de Montreal, Departement de sciences economiques.
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  4. Francis X. Diebold & Lutz Kilian, 1997. "Measuring Predictability: Theory and Macroeconomic Applications," NBER Technical Working Papers 0213, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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  6. Jeremy Berkowitz & Lutz Kilian, 1996. "Recent developments in bootstrapping time series," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 96-45, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  7. Boudjellaba, H. & Dufour, J.M. & Roy, R., 1992. "Simplified Conditions for Non-Causality Between Vectors in Multivariate Arma Models," Cahiers de recherche 9236, Universite de Montreal, Departement de sciences economiques.
  8. Atsushi Inoue & Lutz Kilian, 2002. "Bootstrapping Smooth Functions of Slope Parameters and Innovation Variances in VAR (∞) Models," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 43(2), pages 309-332, May.
  9. David A. Pierce & Larry D. Haugh, 1977. "Causality in temporal systems: characterizations and a survey," Special Studies Papers 87, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  10. Jean-Marie Dufour & Eric Renault, 1998. "Short Run and Long Run Causality in Time Series: Theory," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 66(5), pages 1099-1126, September.
  11. Sims, Christopher A, 1980. "Macroeconomics and Reality," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 48(1), pages 1-48, January.
  12. Lewis, Richard & Reinsel, Gregory C., 1985. "Prediction of multivariate time series by autoregressive model fitting," Journal of Multivariate Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 16(3), pages 393-411, June.
  13. Boudjellaba, B. & Dufour, J.M. & Roy, R., 1991. "Testing Causality Between Two Vectors in Multivariate Arma Models," Cahiers de recherche 9119, Universite de Montreal, Departement de sciences economiques.
  14. Ben S. Bernanke & Alan S. Blinder, 1989. "The federal funds rate and the channels of monetary transmission," Working Papers 89-10, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia.
  15. K. D. Patterson, 2007. "Bias Reduction through First-order Mean Correction, Bootstrapping and Recursive Mean Adjustment," Journal of Applied Statistics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 34(1), pages 23-45.
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  17. Peter N. Ireland, 2005. "The monetary transmission mechanism," Working Papers 06-1, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston.
  18. Geweke, John, 1984. "Inference and causality in economic time series models," Handbook of Econometrics, in: Z. Griliches† & M. D. Intriligator (ed.), Handbook of Econometrics, edition 1, volume 2, chapter 19, pages 1101-1144 Elsevier.
  19. Ben S. Bernanke & Ilian Mihov, 1995. "Measuring Monetary Policy," NBER Working Papers 5145, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  20. Granger, C W J, 1969. "Investigating Causal Relations by Econometric Models and Cross-Spectral Methods," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 37(3), pages 424-38, July.
  21. DUFOUR, Jean-Marie & TAREK, Jouini, 2005. "Asymptotic Distribution of a Simple Linear Estimator for VARMA Models in Echelon Form," Cahiers de recherche 2005-09, Universite de Montreal, Departement de sciences economiques.
  22. Lutz Kilian, 1998. "Small-Sample Confidence Intervals For Impulse Response Functions," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 80(2), pages 218-230, May.
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  24. Hsiao, Cheng, 1982. "Autoregressive modeling and causal ordering of economic variables," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 4(1), pages 243-259, November.
  25. Deirdre N. McCloskey & Stephen T. Ziliak, 1996. "The Standard Error of Regressions," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 34(1), pages 97-114, March.
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