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Causation Delays and Causal Neutralization up to Three Steps Ahead: The Money-Output Relationship Revisited

  • Jonathan B. Hill

    (Florida International University)

In this paper, we develop a parametric test procedure for multiple horizon "Granger" causality and apply the procedure to the well established problem of determining causal patterns in aggregate monthly U.S. money and output. As opposed to most papers in the parametric causality literature, we are interested in whether money ever "causes" (can ever be used to forecast) output, when causation occurs, and how (through which causal chains). For brevity, we consider only causal patterns up to horizon h = 3. Our tests are based on new recursive parametric characterizations of causality chains which help to distinguish between mere noncausation (the total absence of indirect causal routes) and causal neutralization, in which several causal routes exists that cancel each other out such that noncausation occurs. In many cases the recursive characterizations imply greatly simplified linear compound hypotheses for multi-step ahead causation, and permit Wald tests with the usual asymptotic ÷²-distribution. A simulation study demonstrates that a sequential test method does not generate the type of size distortions typically reported in the literature, and null rejection frequencies depend entirely on how we define the "null hypothesis" of non-causality (at which horizon, if any). Using monthly data employed in Stock and Watson (1989), and others, we demonstrate that while Friedman and Kuttner's (1993) result that detrended money growth fails to cause output one month ahead continues into the third quarter of 2003, a significant causal lag may exist through a variety of short-term interest rates: money appears to cause output after at least one month passes, although in some cases using recent data conflicting evidence suggests money may never cause output and be truly irrelevant in matters of real decisions.

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File URL: http://econwpa.repec.org/eps/em/papers/0503/0503016.pdf
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Paper provided by EconWPA in its series Econometrics with number 0503016.

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Length: 46 pages
Date of creation: 15 Mar 2005
Date of revision: 23 Mar 2005
Handle: RePEc:wpa:wuwpem:0503016
Note: Type of Document - pdf; pages: 46. This paper is a revised version of 'Causation Causation Delays and Causal Neutralization up to Three Steps Ahead: The Money-Output Relationship Revisited'
Contact details of provider: Web page: http://econwpa.repec.org

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  1. Sims, Christopher A, 1972. "Money, Income, and Causality," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 62(4), pages 540-52, September.
  2. Friedman, Benjamin M & Kuttner, Kenneth N, 1992. "Money, Income, Prices, and Interest Rates," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 82(3), pages 472-92, June.
  3. Feige, Edgar L & Pearce, Douglas K, 1979. "The Casual Causal Relationship between Money and Income: Some Caveats for Time Series Analysis," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 61(4), pages 521-33, November.
  4. Sims, Christopher A, 1980. "Macroeconomics and Reality," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 48(1), pages 1-48, January.
  5. Benjamin M. Friedman & Kenneth N. Kuttner, 1990. "Another look at the evidence on money-income casualty," Working Paper Series, Macroeconomic Issues 90-17, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
  6. Jonathan B. Hill, 2007. "Efficient tests of long-run causation in trivariate VAR processes with a rolling window study of the money-income relationship," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 22(4), pages 747-765.
  7. Granger, C W J, 1969. "Investigating Causal Relations by Econometric Models and Cross-Spectral Methods," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 37(3), pages 424-38, July.
  8. DUFOUR, Jean-Marie & JOUINI, Tarek, 2005. "Finite-Sample Simulation-Based Inference in VAR Models with Applications to Order Selection and Causality Testing," Cahiers de recherche 2005-12, Universite de Montreal, Departement de sciences economiques.
  9. DUFOUR, Jean-Marie & PELLETIER, Denis & RENAULT, Éric, 2003. "Short run and long run causality in time series: Inference," Cahiers de recherche 2003-16, Universite de Montreal, Departement de sciences economiques.
  10. Rothman, P. & van Dijk, D.J.C. & Franses, Ph.H.B.F., 1999. "A multivariate STAR analysis of the relationship between money and output," Econometric Institute Research Papers EI 9945-/A, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Erasmus School of Economics (ESE), Econometric Institute.
  11. Dufour, J.M. & Renault, E., 1995. "Short-Run and Long-Rub Causality in Time Series: Theory," Cahiers de recherche 9538, Centre interuniversitaire de recherche en économie quantitative, CIREQ.
  12. James H. Stock & Mark W. Watson, 1987. "Interpreting Evidence on Money-Income Causality," NBER Working Papers 2228, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  13. Granger, C. W. J., 1988. "Some recent development in a concept of causality," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 39(1-2), pages 199-211.
  14. Swanson, Norman R., 1998. "Money and output viewed through a rolling window," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 41(3), pages 455-474, May.
  15. Renault, E. & Szafarz, A., 1991. "True Versus Spurious Instantaneous Causality," Papers 9103, Universite Libre de Bruxelles - C.E.M.E..
  16. Norman R. Swanson, 2000. "An Out of Sample Test for Granger Causality," Econometric Society World Congress 2000 Contributed Papers 0362, Econometric Society.
  17. Lutkepohl, Helmut & Burda, Maike M., 1997. "Modified Wald tests under nonregular conditions," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 78(2), pages 315-332, June.
  18. Granger, C. W. J., 1980. "Testing for causality : A personal viewpoint," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 2(1), pages 329-352, May.
  19. repec:fiu:wpaper:0413 is not listed on IDEAS
  20. Stock, James H. & Watson, Mark W., 1989. "Interpreting the evidence on money-income causality," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 40(1), pages 161-181, January.
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