Bias Reduction through First-order Mean Correction, Bootstrapping and Recursive Mean Adjustment
Standard methods of estimation for autoregressive models are known to be biased in finite samples, which has implications for estimation, hypothesis testing, confidence interval construction and forecasting. Three methods of bias reduction are considered here: first-order bias correction, FOBC, where the total bias is approximated by the O(T-1) bias; bootstrapping; and recursive mean adjustment, RMA. In addition, we show how first-order bias correction is related to linear bias correction. The practically important case where the AR model includes an unknown linear trend is considered in detail. The fidelity of nominal to actual coverage of confidence intervals is also assessed. A simulation study covers the AR(1) model and a number of extensions based on the empirical AR(p) models fitted by Nelson & Plosser (1982). Overall, which method dominates depends on the criterion adopted: bootstrapping tends to be the best at reducing bias, recursive mean adjustment is best at reducing mean squared error, whilst FOBC does particularly well in maintaining the fidelity of confidence intervals.
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Volume (Year): 34 (2007)
Issue (Month): 1 ()
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