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Equivalence entre taxation et permis d'émission échangeables


  • Pierre Villa


The paper deals with the equivalence between taxation and emission permits according to different viewpoints: the first one sets prices, the second one quantities. But equivalence is more formal than substantial: taxation is the generating fact, the market of permits does not exist spontaneously. Its price is unstable because supply is not independent from demand. It is manipulatable either ex ante when free allowances are allocated or ex post during the period of compliance through Walrasian tatonnement. A real economic determination of prices exists only when there are unit taxes or penalties on emissions exceeding the quotas. In order to avoid these drawbacks, pay-as-bid auctions must be used and free allowances avoided. Taxation or the price of emission permits are the real option value of changing techniques. An assignment rule is proposed : taxes are assigned to reduce average emissions and permits to reduce marginal emissions. In order to transform the cost into a real change of techniques, it is necessary to finance the sector of research and development of an amount greater than the taxes levied on pollution, which serve at paying the rent of innovation. These extra subsidies are used to move factors of production as capital from industry towards the innovation sector. The tax equivalence is ternary and concerns the taxes on pollution, capital and energy, because extracting fossil fuels is similar as innovation. Decentralization through market schemes induces that depollution has a marketable cost.

Suggested Citation

  • Pierre Villa, 2009. "Equivalence entre taxation et permis d'émission échangeables," Working Papers 2009-05, CEPII research center.
  • Handle: RePEc:cii:cepidt:2009-05

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Henri Sterdyniak & Pierre Villa, 1986. "Des conséquences conjoncturelles de la régulation monétaire," Revue Économique, Programme National Persée, vol. 37(6), pages 963-998.
    2. Sophie Chauvin & Pierre Villa, 2003. "Le Currency Board à travers l'expérience de l'Argentine," Working Papers 2003-07, CEPII research center.
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    5. Philippe Quirion, 2007. "Comment faut-il distribuer les quotas échangeables de gaz à effet de serre ?," Revue Française d'Économie, Programme National Persée, vol. 22(2), pages 129-164.
    6. Rousse, O., 2004. "Le Rôle des Permis d'Emission dans l'Exercice d'un Pouvoir de Marché sur les Marchés de gros de l'Electricité: la Stratégie de Rétention de Capacité," Cahiers du CREDEN (CREDEN Working Papers) 04.10.51, CREDEN (Centre de Recherche en Economie et Droit de l'Energie), Faculty of Economics, University of Montpellier 1.
    7. Coase, R H, 1974. "The Lighthouse in Economics," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 17(2), pages 357-376, October.
    8. Nordhaus, William D, 1991. "A Sketch of the Economics of the Greenhouse Effect," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 81(2), pages 146-150, May.
    9. Ellerman,A. Denny & Joskow,Paul L. & Schmalensee,Richard & Montero,Juan-Pablo & Bailey,Elizabeth M., 2005. "Markets for Clean Air," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521023894, May.
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    10. Alain Bernard & Marc Vielle & Laurent Viguier, 2005. "Premières simulations de la directive européenne sur les quotas d'émission avec le modèle GEMINI-E3," Economie & Prévision, La Documentation Française, vol. 0(3), pages 171-196.
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    JEL classification:

    • E61 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Macroeconomic Policy, Macroeconomic Aspects of Public Finance, and General Outlook - - - Policy Objectives; Policy Designs and Consistency; Policy Coordination
    • E62 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Macroeconomic Policy, Macroeconomic Aspects of Public Finance, and General Outlook - - - Fiscal Policy

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