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Effet frontière, intégration économique et "Forteresse Europe"

  • Keith Head
  • Thierry Mayer

We use the border effects methodology to study the empirical foundation of anxieties relating to construction of a 'Fortress Europe'. We study to what extent imports from the United States and Japan for a representative European country have actually been subject to greater constraints than imports from other European countries, taking intra-national trade as a benchmark. Our findings show a relatively large increase in difficulty of access to the European market for Japanese and American producers during the 1980s. This pattern contrasts quite markedly with the gradual reduction in border effects within the European Union.

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Paper provided by CEPII research center in its series Working Papers with number 2001-06.

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Date of creation: Sep 2001
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Handle: RePEc:cii:cepidt:2001-06
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  1. Erkel-Rousse, H. & Mirza, D., 2000. "Import Price-Elasticities : Reconsidering the Evidence," Papiers d'Economie Mathématique et Applications 2000.52, Université Panthéon-Sorbonne (Paris 1).
  2. Dixit, Avinash K & Stiglitz, Joseph E, 1977. "Monopolistic Competition and Optimum Product Diversity," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 67(3), pages 297-308, June.
  3. Frankel, Jeffrey & Stein, Ernesto & Wei, Shang-jin, 1995. "Trading blocs and the Americas: The natural, the unnatural, and the super-natural," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 47(1), pages 61-95, June.
  4. John F. Helliwell, 1995. "Do National Borders Matter for Quebec's Trade?," NBER Working Papers 5215, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  5. Leamer, Edward E. & Levinsohn, James, 1995. "International trade theory: The evidence," Handbook of International Economics, in: G. M. Grossman & K. Rogoff (ed.), Handbook of International Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 26, pages 1339-1394 Elsevier.
  6. Crozet, M. & Erkel-Rousse, H., 2000. "Trade Performances and the Estimation of Price-Elasticities : Quality Matters," Papiers d'Economie Mathématique et Applications 2000.61, Université Panthéon-Sorbonne (Paris 1).
  7. Holger C. Wolf, 2000. "Intranational Home Bias In Trade," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 82(4), pages 555-563, November.
  8. Bergstrand, Jeffrey H, 1985. "The Gravity Equation in International Trade: Some Microeconomic Foundations and Empirical Evidence," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 67(3), pages 474-81, August.
  9. Haveman, J-D & Hummels, D, 1996. "Trade Creation and Trade Diversion : New Empirical Results," Papers 96-004, Purdue University, Krannert School of Management - Center for International Business Education and Research (CIBER).
  10. Harrigan, James, 1996. "Openness to trade in manufactures in the OECD," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 40(1-2), pages 23-39, February.
  11. Keith Head & Thierry Mayer, 2000. "Non-Europe: The magnitude and causes of market fragmentation in the EU," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 136(2), pages 284-314, June.
  12. Krugman, Paul, 1980. "Scale Economies, Product Differentiation, and the Pattern of Trade," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 70(5), pages 950-59, December.
  13. Hélène Erkel-Rousse & Françoise Le Gallo, 2002. "Compétitivités prix et qualité dans le commerce international : une analyse empirique des échanges de 12 pays de l’OCDE," Économie et Prévision, Programme National Persée, vol. 152(1), pages 93-113.
  14. John F. Helliwell, 1997. "National Borders, Trade and Migration," NBER Working Papers 6027, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  15. Neven, Damien J. & Roller, Lars-Hendrik, 1991. "European integration and trade flows," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 35(6), pages 1295-1309, August.
  16. McCallum, John, 1995. "National Borders Matter: Canada-U.S. Regional Trade Patterns," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 85(3), pages 615-23, June.
  17. Volker Nitsch, 2000. "National borders and international trade: evidence from the European Union," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 33(4), pages 1091-1105, November.
  18. Shang-Jin Wei, 1996. "Intra-National versus International Trade: How Stubborn are Nations in Global Integration?," NBER Working Papers 5531, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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