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Trade in the Triad: How Easy is the Access to Large Markets?

  • Lionel Fontagné
  • Thierry Mayer
  • Soledad Zignago

In this paper, we measure market access between the United States, the EU, and Japan (the Triad), using the effect of national borders on trade patterns. We investigate overall and industry-level trends of bilateral trade openness and provide explanations for those using proxies for bilateral observed protection (tariffs and NTBs), home bias of consumers, product differentiation, and levels of FDI. The explanations related to actual protection, home bias and substitutability of goods put together explain a large part of the border effect between blocs of the Triad, although they do not explain the whole of the border effect puzzle.

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Paper provided by CEPII research center in its series Working Papers with number 2004-04.

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Date of creation: Apr 2004
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Handle: RePEc:cii:cepidt:2004-04
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  7. Obstfeld, Maurice & Rogoff, Kenneth, 2000. "The Six Major Puzzles in International Macroeconomics: Is There a Common Cause?," Center for International and Development Economics Research, Working Paper Series qt0sx02651, Center for International and Development Economics Research, Institute for Business and Economic Research, UC Berkeley.
  8. Keith Head & Thierry Mayer, 2002. "Effet frontière, intégration économique et « Forteresse Europe »," Économie et Prévision, Programme National Persée, vol. 152(1), pages 71-92.
  9. James E. Anderson & Eric van Wincoop, 2001. "Gravity with Gravitas: A Solution to the Border Puzzle," NBER Working Papers 8079, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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  12. Harrigan, James & Vanjani, Rohit, 2003. "Is Japan's trade (still) different?," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 17(4), pages 507-519, December.
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  14. Erkel-Rousse, H. & Mirza, D., 2000. "Import Price-Elasticities : Reconsidering the Evidence," Papiers d'Economie Mathématique et Applications 2000.52, Université Panthéon-Sorbonne (Paris 1).
  15. Hoekman, Bernard & Ng, Francis & Olarreaga, Marcelo, 2001. "Eliminating excessive tariffs on exports of least developed countries," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2604, The World Bank.
  16. Holger C. Wolf, 1997. "Patterns of Intra- and Inter-State Trade," NBER Working Papers 5939, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  17. Scott Bradford, 2003. "Paying the Price: Final Goods Protection in OECD Countries," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 85(1), pages 24-37, February.
  18. Chen, Natalie, 2002. "Intra-national versus International Trade in the European Union: Why do National Borders Matter?," CEPR Discussion Papers 3407, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  19. Huiwen Lai & Daniel Trefler, 2002. "The Gains from Trade with Monopolistic Competition: Specification, Estimation, and Mis-Specification," NBER Working Papers 9169, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  20. Carolyn L. Evans, 2003. "The Economic Significance of National Border Effects," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 93(4), pages 1291-1312, September.
  21. Keith Head & John Ries, 2001. "Increasing Returns versus National Product Differentiation as an Explanation for the Pattern of U.S.-Canada Trade," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 91(4), pages 858-876, September.
  22. Lionel Fontagné & Friedrich von Kirchbach & Mondher Mimouni, 2001. "A First Assessment of Environment-Related Trade Barriers," Working Papers 2001-10, CEPII research center.
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