The "Second Dividend" and the Demographic Structure
The demographic structure of a country influences economic activity. The "second dividend" modifies growth. Accordingly, in general equilibrium, the second dividend and the demographic structure are interrelated. This paper aims at assessing empirically the "second dividend" in a dynamic, empirical and intertemporal setting that allows for measuring its impact on growth, its intergenerational redistributive effects, and its interaction with the demographic structure. The article uses a general equilibrium model with overlapping generations, an energy module and a public finance module. Policy scenarios compare the consequences of recycling a carbon tax through lower proportional income tax rather than higher public lumpsum expenditures. They are computed for two countries with different demographics (France and Germany). Results suggest that the magnitude of the "second dividend" is significantly related with the demographic structure. The more concentrated the demographic structure on cohorts with higher income and saving rate, the stronger the effect on capital supply of the second dividend. The second dividend weighs on the welfare of relatively aged working cohorts. It fosters the wellbeing of young working cohorts and of future generations. The more concentrated the demographic structure on aged working cohorts, the higher the intergenerational redistributive effects of the second dividend.
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Axel Boersch-Supan & Florian Heiss & Alexander Ludwig & Joachim Winter, 2003.
"Pension Reform, Capital Markets and the Rate of Return,"
German Economic Review,
Verein für Socialpolitik, vol. 4(2), pages 151-181, 05.
- Florian Heiss & Alexander Ludwig & Joachim Winter, 2002. "Pension reform, capital markets, and the rate of return," MEA discussion paper series 02023, Munich Center for the Economics of Aging (MEA) at the Max Planck Institute for Social Law and Social Policy.
- Börsch-Supan, Axel & Heiss, Florian & Winter, Joachim, 2000. "Pension reform, capital markets, and the rate of return," Discussion Papers 589, Institut fuer Volkswirtschaftslehre und Statistik, Abteilung fuer Volkswirtschaftslehre.
- Börsch-Supan, Axel H. & Heiss, Florian & Ludwig, Alexander & Winter, Joachim, 2003. "Pension reform, capital markets and the rate of return," Munich Reprints in Economics 20200, University of Munich, Department of Economics.
- Miles, David K, 1997.
"Modelling the Impact of Demographic Change Upon the Economy,"
CEPR Discussion Papers
1762, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Miles, David, 1999. "Modelling the Impact of Demographic Change upon the Economy," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 109(452), pages 1-36, January.
- Broer, D Peter & Westerhout, Ed W M T & Bovenberg, A Lans, 1994.
" Taxation, Pensions and Saving in a Small Open Economy,"
Scandinavian Journal of Economics,
Wiley Blackwell, vol. 96(3), pages 403-24.
- Broer, D.P. & Westerhout, E.W.M.T. & Bovenberg, A.L., 1994. "Taxation, pension and saving in a small open economy," Other publications TiSEM 667e0603-e83e-4340-aad4-5, Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management.
- Daron Acemoglu, 2001.
"Directed Technical Change,"
NBER Working Papers
8287, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Epstein, Larry G & Zin, Stanley E, 1991. "Substitution, Risk Aversion, and the Temporal Behavior of Consumption and Asset Returns: An Empirical Analysis," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 99(2), pages 263-86, April.
- Olivier Sassi & Renaud Crassous & Jean-Charles Hourcade & Vincent Gitz & Henri Waisman & Celine Guivarch, 2010.
"IMACLIM-R: a modelling framework to simulate sustainable development pathways,"
International Journal of Global Environmental Issues,
Inderscience Enterprises Ltd, vol. 10(1/2), pages 5-24.
- Jean-Charles Hourcade & Olivier Sassi & Renaud Crassous & Vincent Gitz & Henri Waisman & Céline Guivarch, 2010. "IMACLIM-R: a modelling framework to simulate sustainable development pathways," Post-Print hal-00566290, HAL.
- Parry, Ian W. H. & Bento, Antonio M., 2000.
"Tax Deductions, Environmental Policy, and the "Double Dividend" Hypothesis,"
Journal of Environmental Economics and Management,
Elsevier, vol. 39(1), pages 67-96, January.
- Parry, Ian & Bento, Antonio, 1999. "Tax deductions, environmental policy, and the"double dividend"hypothesis," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2119, The World Bank.
- Pearce, David W, 1991. "The Role of Carbon Taxes in Adjusting to Global Warming," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 101(407), pages 938-48, July.
- Paul A. Samuelson, 1958. "An Exact Consumption-Loan Model of Interest with or without the Social Contrivance of Money," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 66, pages 467.
- Jean-Charles Hourcade, Mark Jaccard, Chris Bataille, and Frederic Ghersi , 2006. "Hybrid Modeling: New Answers to Old Challenges Introduction to the Special Issue of The Energy Journal," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Special I), pages 1-12.
- de Bovenberg, A Lans & Mooij, Ruud A, 1994.
"Environmental Levies and Distortionary Taxation,"
American Economic Review,
American Economic Association, vol. 84(4), pages 1085-89, September.
- Oecd, 2006. "Projecting OECD Health and Long-Term Care Expenditures: What Are the Main Drivers?," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 477, OECD Publishing.
- Frederic Ghersi and Jean-Charles Hourcade, 2006. "Macroeconomic Consistency issues in E3 Modeling: The Continued Fable of the Elephant and the Rabbit," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Special I), pages 39-62.
- John, A. & Pecchenino, R. & Schimmelpfennig, D. & Schreft, S., 1995. "Short-lived agents and the long-lived environment," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 58(1), pages 127-141, September.
- Bovenberg, A. Lans & Heijdra, Ben J., 1998. "Environmental tax policy and intergenerational distribution," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 67(1), pages 1-24, January.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:cec:wpaper:1405. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Climate Economics Chair)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.