IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/cap/wpaper/012017.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Quantifying the Coordinated Effects of Partial Horizontal Acquisitions

Author

Listed:
  • Duarte Brito

    () (Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia | Universidade de Évora, CEFAGE-UE)

  • Ricardo Ribeiro

    () (Universidade Católica Portuguesa, Católica Porto Business School)

  • Helder Vasconcelos

    () (Universidade do Porto, Faculdade de Economia and Center for Economics and Finance)

Abstract

Recent years have witnessed an increased interest, by competition agencies, in assessing the competitive effects of partial acquisitions. We propose an empirical structural methodology to quantify the coordinated effects of such acquisitions on differentiated products industries, by evaluating the impact of such acquisitions on the minimum discount factors for which coordination can be sustained. The methodology can deal with settings involving all type of owners and ownership rights: owners that can be internal to the industry (rival firms) and external to the industry; and ownership rights that can involve financial interests and corporate control, can be direct and indirect, can be partial or full. We provide an empirical application of our proposed methodology to several acquisitions in the wet shaving industry. The results seem to suggest that the incentives of (i) the acquiring party’s firm to coordinate are non-decreasing after an acquisition (independently of whether it involves full or partial financial or corporate control rights, by internal or external owners), (ii) the acquired firm to coordinate are non-decreasing after acquisitions involving full or partial corporate control rights, but non-increasing after acquisitions involving full or partial financial rights, and (iii) the remaining firms in the industry to coordinate are non-increasing after an acquisition (again, independently of whether it involves full or partial financial or corporate control rights, by internal or external owners).

Suggested Citation

  • Duarte Brito & Ricardo Ribeiro & Helder Vasconcelos, 2017. "Quantifying the Coordinated Effects of Partial Horizontal Acquisitions," Working Papers de Economia (Economics Working Papers) 01, Católica Porto Business School, Universidade Católica Portuguesa.
  • Handle: RePEc:cap:wpaper:012017
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.feg.porto.ucp.pt/docentes/repec/WP/012017_Brito_Ribeiro_Vasconcelos_QUANTIFYING_THE_COORDINATED_EFFECTS.pdf
    File Function: First version
    Download Restriction: no

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Hansen, Lars Peter, 1982. "Large Sample Properties of Generalized Method of Moments Estimators," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 50(4), pages 1029-1054, July.
    2. Brito, Duarte & Ribeiro, Ricardo & Vasconcelos, Helder, 2013. "Measuring Unilateral Effects in Partial Acquisitions," CEPR Discussion Papers 9354, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    3. Igal Hendel & Aviv Nevo, 2006. "Measuring the Implications of Sales and Consumer Inventory Behavior," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 74(6), pages 1637-1673, November.
    4. David Gilo & Yossi Moshe & Yossi Spiegel, 2006. "Partial cross ownership and tacit collusion," RAND Journal of Economics, RAND Corporation, vol. 37(1), pages 81-99, March.
    5. Azar, José, 2017. "Portfolio Diversification, Market Power, and the Theory of the Firm," IESE Research Papers D/1170, IESE Business School.
    6. Paha, Johannes & de Haas, Samuel, 2016. "Partial cross ownership and explicit collusion," Annual Conference 2016 (Augsburg): Demographic Change 145640, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
    7. James W. Friedman, 1971. "A Non-cooperative Equilibrium for Supergames," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 38(1), pages 1-12.
    8. Maarten Dossche & Freddy Heylen & Dirk Van den Poel, 2010. "The Kinked Demand Curve and Price Rigidity: Evidence from Scanner Data," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 112(4), pages 723-752, December.
    9. Malueg, David A., 1992. "Collusive behavior and partial ownership of rivals," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 10(1), pages 27-34, March.
    10. Harrington, Joseph Jr., 1989. "Collusion among asymmetric firms: The case of different discount factors," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 7(2), pages 289-307, June.
    11. Duarte Brito & António Osório & Ricardo Ribeiro & Hélder Vasconcelos, 2015. "Unilateral Effects Screens for Partial Horizontal Acquisitions: The Generalized HHI and GUPPI," Working Papers de Economia (Economics Working Papers) 02, Católica Porto Business School, Universidade Católica Portuguesa.
    12. Compte, Olivier & Jenny, Frederic & Rey, Patrick, 2002. "Capacity constraints, mergers and collusion," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 46(1), pages 1-29, January.
    13. Bresnahan, Timothy F. & Salop, Steven C., 1986. "Quantifying the competitive effects of production joint ventures," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 4(2), pages 155-175, June.
    14. Berry, Steven & Levinsohn, James & Pakes, Ariel, 1995. "Automobile Prices in Market Equilibrium," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 63(4), pages 841-890, July.
    15. B. Douglas Bernheim & Michael D. Whinston, 1990. "Multimarket Contact and Collusive Behavior," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 21(1), pages 1-26, Spring.
    16. Margaret E. Slade, 2004. "Market Power and Joint Dominance in U.K. Brewing," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 52(1), pages 133-163, March.
    17. Dennis Leech, 2002. "An Empirical Comparison of the Performance of Classical Power Indices," Political Studies, Political Studies Association, vol. 50(1), pages 1-22, March.
    18. Brian McManus, 2007. "Nonlinear pricing in an oligopoly market: the case of specialty coffee," RAND Journal of Economics, RAND Corporation, vol. 38(2), pages 512-532, June.
    19. Abreu, Dilip, 1986. "Extremal equilibria of oligopolistic supergames," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 39(1), pages 191-225, June.
    20. Nevo, Aviv, 1998. "Identification of the oligopoly solution concept in a differentiated-products industry," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 59(3), pages 391-395, June.
    21. Brito, Duarte & Cabral, Luís & Vasconcelos, Helder, 2014. "Divesting ownership in a rival," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 34(C), pages 9-24.
    22. Marie Goppelsroeder & Maarten Pieter Schinkel & Jan Tuinstra, 2008. "QUANTIFYING THE SCOPE FOR EFFICIENCY DEFENSE IN MERGER CONTROL: THE WERDEN-FROEB-INDEX -super-," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 56(4), pages 778-808, December.
    23. Brown, Bryan W & Walker, Mary Beth, 1989. "The Random Utility Hypothesis and Inference in Demand Systems," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 57(4), pages 815-829, July.
    24. Levy, Marc, 2011. "The Banzhaf index in complete and incomplete shareholding structures: A new algorithm," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 215(2), pages 411-421, December.
    25. Dietzenbacher, Erik & Smid, Bert & Volkerink, Bjorn, 2000. "Horizontal integration in the Dutch financial sector," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 18(8), pages 1223-1242, December.
    26. Marie Goppelsroeder & Maarten Pieter Schinkel & Jan Tuinstra, 2006. "Quantifying the Scope for Efficiency Defense in Merger Control: The Werden-Froeb-Index," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 06-074/1, Tinbergen Institute.
    27. Alberto Salvo, 2010. "Inferring market power under the threat of entry: the case of the Brazilian cement industry," RAND Journal of Economics, RAND Corporation, vol. 41(2), pages 326-350.
    28. Bart J. Bronnenberg & Michael W. Kruger & Carl F. Mela, 2008. "—The IRI Marketing Data Set," Marketing Science, INFORMS, vol. 27(4), pages 745-748, 07-08.
    29. Daniel McFadden & Kenneth Train, 2000. "Mixed MNL models for discrete response," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 15(5), pages 447-470.
    30. Helder Vasconcelos, 2005. "Tacit Collusion, Cost Asymmetries, and Mergers," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 36(1), pages 39-62, Spring.
    31. Samuel de Haas & Johannes Paha, 2016. "Partial cross ownership and collusion," MAGKS Papers on Economics 201632, Philipps-Universität Marburg, Faculty of Business Administration and Economics, Department of Economics (Volkswirtschaftliche Abteilung).
    32. Molnar, Jozsef & Violi, Roberto & Zhou, Xiaolan, 2013. "Multimarket contact in Italian retail banking: Competition and welfare," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 31(5), pages 368-381.
    33. Kamada, Yuichiro & Kojima, Fuhito, 2013. "The equivalence between costly and probabilistic voting models," Games and Economic Behavior, Elsevier, vol. 80(C), pages 179-185.
    34. Reynolds, Robert J. & Snapp, Bruce R., 1986. "The competitive effects of partial equity interests and joint ventures," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 4(2), pages 141-153, June.
    35. Brito, Duarte & Ribeiro, Ricardo & Vasconcelos, Helder, 2014. "Measuring unilateral effects in partial horizontal acquisitions," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 33(C), pages 22-36.
    36. Rothschild, R., 1999. "Cartel stability when costs are heterogeneous," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 17(5), pages 717-734, July.
    37. repec:rje:randje:v:37:y:2006:1:p:81-99 is not listed on IDEAS
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Brito, Duarte & Ribeiro, Ricardo & Vasconcelos, Helder, 2013. "Measuring Unilateral Effects in Partial Acquisitions," CEPR Discussion Papers 9354, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    2. Ivaldi, Marc & Lagos, Vicente, 2018. "How Accurate is the Coordinate Price Pressure Index to Predict Mergers’ Coordinated Effects?," TSE Working Papers 18-915, Toulouse School of Economics (TSE).
    3. Martin C. Schmalz, 2018. "Common-Ownership Concentration and Corporate Conduct," CESifo Working Paper Series 6908, CESifo Group Munich.
    4. Ivaldi, Marc & Lagos, Vicente, 2016. "Assessment of Post-merger Coordinated Effects: Characterization by Simulations," CEPR Discussion Papers 11218, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    5. repec:eee:indorg:v:53:y:2017:i:c:p:267-305 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. Brito, Duarte & Ribeiro, Ricardo & Vasconcelos, Helder, 2014. "Measuring unilateral effects in partial horizontal acquisitions," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 33(C), pages 22-36.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Antitrust; Coordinated Effects; Partial Acquisitions; Oligopoly; Differentiated Products; Demand Estimation;

    JEL classification:

    • D12 - Microeconomics - - Household Behavior - - - Consumer Economics: Empirical Analysis
    • C54 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric Modeling - - - Quantitative Policy Modeling
    • L13 - Industrial Organization - - Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance - - - Oligopoly and Other Imperfect Markets
    • L41 - Industrial Organization - - Antitrust Issues and Policies - - - Monopolization; Horizontal Anticompetitive Practices
    • L66 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Manufacturing - - - Food; Beverages; Cosmetics; Tobacco

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:cap:wpaper:012017. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Ricardo Goncalves). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/feucppt.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.