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Asymmetric Price Adjustment in the Small: An Implication of Rational Inattention

Author

Listed:
  • Daniel Levy

    (Bar-Ilan University and Emory University)

  • Haipeng (Allan) Chen

    (University of Miami)

  • Sourav Ray

    (McMaster University)

  • Mark Bergen

    (University of Minnesota)

Abstract

Analyzing scanner price data that cover 27 product categories over an eight-year period from a large Mid-western supermarket chain, we uncover a surprising regularity in the data—small price increases occur more frequently than small price decreases. We find that this asymmetry holds for price changes of up to about 10 cents, on average. The asymmetry disappears for larger price changes. We document this finding for the entire data set, as well as for individual product categories. Further, we find that the asymmetry holds even after excluding from the data the observations pertaining to inflationary periods, and after allowing for various lengths of lagged price adjustment. The findings are insensitive also to the measure of price level used to measure inflation (the PPI or the CPI). To explain these findings, we extend the implications of the literature on rational inattention to individual price dynamics. Specifically, we argue that processing and reacting to price change information is a costly activity. An important implication of rational inattention is that consumers may rationally choose to ignore—and thus not to respond to—small price changes, creating a "range of inattention" along the demand curve. This range of consumer inattention, we argue, gives the retailers incentive for asymmetric price adjustment "in the small." These incentives, however, disappear for large price changes, because large price changes are processed by consumers and therefore trigger their response. Thus, no asymmetry is observed "in the large." An additional implication of rational inattention is that the extent of the asymmetry found "in the small " might vary over the business cycle: it might diminish during recessions and strengthen during expansions. We find that the data are indeed consistent with these predictions. An added contribution of the paper is that our theory may offer a possible explanation for the presence of small price changes, which has been a long-standing puzzle in the literature. chain, we find significantly higher retail price rigidity for private label products than for nationally branded products during the Christmas and Thanksgiving holiday periods relative to the rest of the year. The finding cannot be explained by changes in holiday period promotional practices because we find that private label promotions appear to diminish at least as much as national brands. The increased rigidity of private label products relative to national brands is only partially accounted for by increased rigidity of wholesale prices. After ruling out other potential explanations, we suggest that the higher private label price rigidity might be due to the increased emphasis on social consumption during holiday periods, raising the customers’ value of nationally branded products relative to the private labels.

Suggested Citation

  • Daniel Levy & Haipeng (Allan) Chen & Sourav Ray & Mark Bergen, 2004. "Asymmetric Price Adjustment in the Small: An Implication of Rational Inattention," Working Papers 2004-08, Bar-Ilan University, Department of Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:biu:wpaper:2004-08
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    2. Mark Bergen & Daniel Levy & Sourav Ray & Paul H. Rubin & Benjamin Zeliger, 2008. "When Little Things Mean a Lot: On the Inefficiency of Item-Pricing Laws," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 51(2), pages 209-250, May.
    3. Ray, Sourav & Chen, Haipeng (Allan) & Bergen, Mark & Levy, Daniel, 2006. "Asymmetric Wholesale Pricing: Theory and Evidence," EconStor Open Access Articles and Book Chapters, ZBW - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, pages 109-201.
    4. Gil S. Epstein & Alessandra Venturini, 2011. "The Impact of Worker Effort on Public Sentiment Towards Temporary Migrants," Development Working Papers 310, Centro Studi Luca d'Agliano, University of Milano, revised 09 May 2011.
    5. Young, Andrew T. & Levy, Daniel, 2014. "Explicit Evidence of an Implicit Contract," EconStor Open Access Articles and Book Chapters, ZBW - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, pages 804-832.
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    8. Adi Schnytzer & Janez Sustersic, 2011. "The Regression Tournament: A Novel Approach To Prediction Model Assessment," Journal of Prediction Markets, University of Buckingham Press, vol. 5(2), pages 32-43.
    9. Adi Schnytzer & Sara Westreich, 2011. "Information and Attitudes to Risk at the Track," Working Papers 2011-16, Bar-Ilan University, Department of Economics.
    10. Levy, Daniel, 2007. "Price Rigidity and Flexibility: New Empirical Evidence - Introduction to the Special Issue," EconStor Open Access Articles and Book Chapters, ZBW - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, pages 639-647.
    11. Babutsidze, Zakaria, 2006. "(S,s) Pricing: Does the Heterogeneity Wipe Out the Asymmetry on Micro Level?," MERIT Working Papers 2006-033, United Nations University - Maastricht Economic and Social Research Institute on Innovation and Technology (MERIT).
    12. Igal Milchtaich, 2010. "Network Topology and Equilibrium Existence in Weighted Network Congestion Games," Working Papers 2010-09, Bar-Ilan University, Department of Economics.
    13. Eyal Baharad & Jacob Goldberger & Moshe Koppel & Shmuel Nitzan, 2012. "Beyond Condorcet: optimal aggregation rules using voting records," Theory and Decision, Springer, vol. 72(1), pages 113-130, January.
    14. Adi Schnytzer & Barbara Luppi, 2008. "Painful Regret and Elation at the Track," Journal of Gambling Business and Economics, University of Buckingham Press, vol. 2(3), pages 85-99, December.
    15. Azar, Ofer H., 2006. "Behavioral industrial organization, firm strategy, and consumer economics," MPRA Paper 4484, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    16. Francesco Cerigioni, 2021. "Dual Decision Processes: Retrieving Preferences When Some Choices Are Automatic," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 129(6), pages 1667-1704.
    17. Adi Schnytzer & Guy Weinberg, 2011. "Testing for Home Team and Favorite Biases in the Australian Rules Football Fixed Odds and Point Spread Betting Markets," Working Papers 2011-13, Bar-Ilan University, Department of Economics.
    18. Babutsidze, Zakaria, 2010. "(S,s) pricing: Does the heterogeneity wipe out the asymmetry on micro level?," Economics Discussion Papers 2010-19, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW Kiel).
    19. Tipoe, Eileen, 2021. "Price inattention: A revealed preference characterisation," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 134(C).
    20. Ehrmann, Michael, 2006. "Rational inattention, inflation developments and perceptions after the euro cash changeover," Working Paper Series 588, European Central Bank.
    21. Arthur Fishman & Nadav Levy, 2011. "Search Costs and Risky Investment in Quality," Working Papers 2011-04, Bar-Ilan University, Department of Economics.
    22. Anett Weber & Winfried J. Steiner & Stefan Lang, 2017. "A comparison of semiparametric and heterogeneous store sales models for optimal category pricing," OR Spectrum: Quantitative Approaches in Management, Springer;Gesellschaft für Operations Research e.V., vol. 39(2), pages 403-445, March.
    23. James Yetman, 2009. "Hong Kong Consumer Prices are Flexible," Working Papers 052009, Hong Kong Institute for Monetary Research.
    24. Hansen, Kristin & Loy, Jens-Peter, 2007. "Multiproduct Food Retail Sales: A Case Study for Germany," 2007 1st Forum, February 15-17, 2007, Innsbruck, Austria 6568, International European Forum on System Dynamics and Innovation in Food Networks.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Asymmetric Price Adjustment; Rational Inattention; Cost and Benefit of Information Acquiring and Processing; Price Rigidity;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • E31 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles - - - Price Level; Inflation; Deflation
    • D11 - Microeconomics - - Household Behavior - - - Consumer Economics: Theory
    • D21 - Microeconomics - - Production and Organizations - - - Firm Behavior: Theory
    • D80 - Microeconomics - - Information, Knowledge, and Uncertainty - - - General
    • L11 - Industrial Organization - - Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance - - - Production, Pricing, and Market Structure; Size Distribution of Firms
    • M31 - Business Administration and Business Economics; Marketing; Accounting; Personnel Economics - - Marketing and Advertising - - - Marketing

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