IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/bdi/opques/qef_549_20.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

FinTech credit: a critical review of empirical research

Author

Listed:
  • Nicola Branzoli

    (Bank of Italy)

  • Ilaria Supino

    (Bank of Italy)

Abstract

FinTech credit has attracted significant attention from academics and policymakers in recent years. Given its growing importance, in this paper we provide an overview of the empirical research on FinTech credit to households and non-financial corporations (NFCs). We focus on three broad topics: i) the factors supporting the development of innovative business models for credit intermediation, such as marketplace lending; ii) the benefits of new credit risk assessment data and methods; iii) the implications of these innovations for access to credit. Three main messages emerge from the literature. First, the growth of lenders with innovative business models is mainly driven by the degree of local economic development and of competition in the banking sector. Second, new data and methods can improve traditional credit risk models because they are particularly helpful in screening opaque borrowers, such as those with scant credit history. Third, FinTech borrowers generally lack (or have limited) access to finance and tend to be riskier than traditional bank borrowers.

Suggested Citation

  • Nicola Branzoli & Ilaria Supino, 2020. "FinTech credit: a critical review of empirical research," Questioni di Economia e Finanza (Occasional Papers) 549, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
  • Handle: RePEc:bdi:opques:qef_549_20
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://www.bancaditalia.it/pubblicazioni/qef/2020-0549/QEF_549_20.pdf
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Will Dobbie & Andres Liberman & Daniel Paravisini & Vikram Pathania, 2021. "Measuring Bias in Consumer Lending [Loan Prospecting and the Loss of Soft Information]," The Review of Economic Studies, Review of Economic Studies Ltd, vol. 88(6), pages 2799-2832.
    2. Butaru, Florentin & Chen, Qingqing & Clark, Brian & Das, Sanmay & Lo, Andrew W. & Siddique, Akhtar, 2016. "Risk and risk management in the credit card industry," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 72(C), pages 218-239.
    3. Rajkamal Iyer & Asim Ijaz Khwaja & Erzo F. P. Luttmer & Kelly Shue, 2016. "Screening Peers Softly: Inferring the Quality of Small Borrowers," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 62(6), pages 1554-1577, June.
    4. Stefania Albanesi & Domonkos F. Vamossy, 2019. "Predicting Consumer Default: A Deep Learning Approach," Working Papers 2019-056, Human Capital and Economic Opportunity Working Group.
    5. Calebe de Roure & Loriana Pelizzon & Anjan Thakor, 2022. "P2P Lenders versus Banks: Cream Skimming or Bottom Fishing? [Loan officer incentives, internal rating models and default rates]," The Review of Corporate Finance Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 11(2), pages 213-262.
    6. Andreas Fuster & Matthew Plosser & Philipp Schnabl & James Vickery, 2019. "The Role of Technology in Mortgage Lending," The Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 32(5), pages 1854-1899.
    7. Jagtiani, Julapa & Lemieux, Catharine, 2018. "Do fintech lenders penetrate areas that are underserved by traditional banks?," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 100(C), pages 43-54.
    8. Buchak, Greg & Matvos, Gregor & Piskorski, Tomasz & Seru, Amit, 2018. "Fintech, regulatory arbitrage, and the rise of shadow banks," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 130(3), pages 453-483.
    9. Rafael La Porta & Florencio Lopez-de-Silanes & Andrei Shleifer & Robert W. Vishny, 1998. "Law and Finance," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 106(6), pages 1113-1155, December.
    10. Manconi, Alberto & Braggion, Fabio & Zhu, Haikun, 2018. "Can Technology Undermine Macroprudential Regulation? Evidence from Peer-to-Peer Credit in China," CEPR Discussion Papers 12668, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    11. Bracke, Philippe & Datta, Anupam & Jung, Carsten & Sen, Shayak, 2019. "Machine learning explainability in finance: an application to default risk analysis," Bank of England working papers 816, Bank of England.
    12. Mirko Moscatelli & Simone Narizzano & Fabio Parlapiano & Gianluca Viggiano, 2019. "Corporate default forecasting with machine learning," Temi di discussione (Economic working papers) 1256, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
    13. Jon Frost & Leonardo Gambacorta & Yi Huang & Hyun Song Shin & Pablo Zbinden, 2019. "BigTech and the changing structure of financial intermediation," Economic Policy, CEPR, CESifo, Sciences Po;CES;MSH, vol. 34(100), pages 761-799.
    14. Khandani, Amir E. & Kim, Adlar J. & Lo, Andrew W., 2010. "Consumer credit-risk models via machine-learning algorithms," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(11), pages 2767-2787, November.
    15. Marcello Bofondi, 2017. "Lending-based crowdfunding: opportunities and risks," Questioni di Economia e Finanza (Occasional Papers) 375, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
    16. Tobias Berg & Valentin Burg & Ana Gombović & Manju Puri, 2020. "On the Rise of FinTechs: Credit Scoring Using Digital Footprints," The Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 33(7), pages 2845-2897.
    17. Stijn Claessens & Jon Frost & Grant Turner & Feng Zhu, 2018. "Fintech credit markets around the world: size, drivers and policy issues," BIS Quarterly Review, Bank for International Settlements, September.
    18. Lessmann, Stefan & Baesens, Bart & Seow, Hsin-Vonn & Thomas, Lyn C., 2015. "Benchmarking state-of-the-art classification algorithms for credit scoring: An update of research," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 247(1), pages 124-136.
    19. Leonardo Gambacorta & Yiping Huang & Han Qiu & Jingyi Wang, 2019. "How do machine learning and non-traditional data affect credit scoring? New evidence from a Chinese fintech firm," BIS Working Papers 834, Bank for International Settlements.
    20. Huan Tang, 2019. "Peer-to-Peer Lenders Versus Banks: Substitutes or Complements?," The Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 32(5), pages 1900-1938.
    21. Nicholas Wilson & Barbara Summers & Robert Hope, 2000. "Using Payment Behaviour Data for Credit Risk Modelling," International Journal of the Economics of Business, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 7(3), pages 333-346.
    22. Mingfeng Lin & Nagpurnanand R. Prabhala & Siva Viswanathan, 2013. "Judging Borrowers by the Company They Keep: Friendship Networks and Information Asymmetry in Online Peer-to-Peer Lending," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 59(1), pages 17-35, August.
    23. Adair Morse, 2015. "Peer-to-Peer Crowdfunding: Information and the Potential for Disruption in Consumer Lending," Annual Review of Financial Economics, Annual Reviews, vol. 7(1), pages 463-482, December.
    24. Robert Bartlett & Adair Morse & Richard Stanton & Nancy Wallace, 2019. "Consumer-Lending Discrimination in the FinTech Era," NBER Working Papers 25943, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    25. Devin G. Pope & Justin R. Sydnor, 2011. "What’s in a Picture?: Evidence of Discrimination from Prosper.com," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 46(1), pages 53-92.
    26. Adair Morse, 2015. "Peer-to-Peer Crowdfunding: Information and the Potential for Disruption in Consumer Lending," NBER Working Papers 20899, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    27. Gonzalez, Laura & Loureiro, Yuliya Komarova, 2014. "When can a photo increase credit? The impact of lender and borrower profiles on online peer-to-peer loans," Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Finance, Elsevier, vol. 2(C), pages 44-58.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Kowalewski, Oskar & Pisany, Paweł, 2022. "Banks' consumer lending reaction to fintech and bigtech credit emergence in the context of soft versus hard credit information processing," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 81(C).
    2. Kowalewski, Oskar & Pisany, Paweł & Ślązak, Emil, 2022. "Digitalization and data, institutional quality and culture as drivers of technology-based credit providers," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 121(C).
    3. Krzysztof Waliszewski & Ewa Cichowicz & £ukasz Gêbski & Filip Kliber & Jakub Kubiczek & Pawe³ Niedzió³ka & Ma³gorzata Solarz & Anna Warchlewska, 2023. "The role of the Lendtech sector in the consumer credit market in the context of household financial exclusion," Oeconomia Copernicana, Institute of Economic Research, vol. 14(2), pages 609-643, June.
    4. Wang, Xiaoting & Hou, Siyuan & Kyaw, Khine & Xue, Xupeng & Liu, Xueqin, 2023. "Exploring the determinants of Fintech Credit: A comprehensive analysis," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 126(C).
    5. Oskar Kowalewski & Pawel Pisany & Emil Slazak, 2021. "What determines cross-country differences in fintech and bigtech credit markets?," Working Papers 2021-ACF-02, IESEG School of Management.
    6. Salvatore Cardillo & Raffaele Gallo & Francesco Guarino, 2021. "Main challenges and prospects for the European banking sector: a critical review of the ongoing debate," Questioni di Economia e Finanza (Occasional Papers) 634, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Tobias Berg & Andreas Fuster & Manju Puri, 2022. "FinTech Lending," Annual Review of Financial Economics, Annual Reviews, vol. 14(1), pages 187-207, November.
    2. Oskar Kowalewski & Pawel Pisany & Emil Slazak, 2021. "What determines cross-country differences in fintech and bigtech credit markets?," Working Papers 2021-ACF-02, IESEG School of Management.
    3. Bollaert, Helen & Lopez-de-Silanes, Florencio & Schwienbacher, Armin, 2021. "Fintech and access to finance," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 68(C).
    4. Kowalewski, Oskar & Pisany, Paweł, 2022. "Banks' consumer lending reaction to fintech and bigtech credit emergence in the context of soft versus hard credit information processing," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 81(C).
    5. Eccles, Peter & Grout, Paul & Siciliani, Paolo & Zalewska, Anna, 2021. "The impact of machine learning and big data on credit markets," Bank of England working papers 930, Bank of England.
    6. Biancini, Sara & Verdier, Marianne, 2023. "Bank-platform competition in the credit market," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 91(C).
    7. Wang, Xiaoting & Hou, Siyuan & Kyaw, Khine & Xue, Xupeng & Liu, Xueqin, 2023. "Exploring the determinants of Fintech Credit: A comprehensive analysis," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 126(C).
    8. Bertsch, Christoph & Hull, Isaiah & Qi, Yingjie & Zhang, Xin, 2020. "Bank misconduct and online lending," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 116(C).
    9. Lei Lu & Jianxing Wei & Weixing Wu & Yi Zhou, 2023. "Pricing strategies in BigTech lending: Evidence from China," Financial Management, Financial Management Association International, vol. 52(2), pages 333-374, June.
    10. Thakor, Anjan V., 2020. "Fintech and banking: What do we know?," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 41(C).
    11. Kowalewski, Oskar & Pisany, Paweł & Ślązak, Emil, 2022. "Digitalization and data, institutional quality and culture as drivers of technology-based credit providers," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 121(C).
    12. Peng, Hongfeng & Ji, Jiao & Sun, Hanwen & Xu, Haofeng, 2023. "Legal enforcement and fintech credit: International evidence," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 72(C), pages 214-231.
    13. Sunghun Chung & Keongtae Kim & Chul Ho Lee & Wonseok Oh, 2023. "Interdependence between online peer‐to‐peer lending and cryptocurrency markets and its effects on financial inclusion," Production and Operations Management, Production and Operations Management Society, vol. 32(6), pages 1939-1957, June.
    14. Li, Bin & Guo, Fei & Xu, Lei & Meng, Siqi, 2024. "Fintech business and corporate social responsibility practices," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 59(C).
    15. Correia, Filipe & Martins, António & Waikel, Anthony, 2022. "Online financing without FinTech: Evidence from online informal loans," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 121(C).
    16. Cuadros-Solas, Pedro J. & Cubillas, Elena & Salvador, Carlos, 2023. "Does alternative digital lending affect bank performance? Cross-country and bank-level evidence," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 90(C).
    17. Salvatore Cardillo & Raffaele Gallo & Francesco Guarino, 2021. "Main challenges and prospects for the European banking sector: a critical review of the ongoing debate," Questioni di Economia e Finanza (Occasional Papers) 634, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
    18. Ping-Lun Tseng & Wen-Chung Guo, 2022. "Fintech, Credit Market Competition, and Bank Asset Quality," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer;Western Finance Association, vol. 61(3), pages 285-318, June.
    19. Nicola Branzoli & Edoardo Rainone & Ilaria Supino, 2023. "The role of banks' technology adoption in credit markets during the pandemic," Temi di discussione (Economic working papers) 1406, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
    20. Chen, S. & Doerr, S. & Frost, J. & Gambacorta, L. & Shin, H.S., 2023. "The fintech gender gap," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 54(C).

    More about this item

    Keywords

    artificial intelligence; credit; digital technologies; FinTech; marketplace lending;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • G21 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages
    • G22 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Insurance; Insurance Companies; Actuarial Studies
    • G23 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Non-bank Financial Institutions; Financial Instruments; Institutional Investors
    • G24 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Investment Banking; Venture Capital; Brokerage

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:bdi:opques:qef_549_20. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: the person in charge (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/bdigvit.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service. RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.