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Order Aggressiveness and Quantity: How Are They Determined in a Limit Order Market?

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  • Ingrid Lo
  • Stephen Sapp

Abstract

Dealers trading in a limit order market must choose both the order aggressiveness and the quantity for their orders. We empirically investigate how dealers jointly make these decisions in the foreign exchange market using a unique simultaneous equations model. The model uses an ordered probit model to account for the discrete nature of order aggressiveness and a censored regression model to capture the clustering of orders placed at the smallest available quantity, $1 million. We find evidence of a clear trade-off between order aggressiveness and quantity: more aggressive orders tend to be smaller in size. The increased competition (demand) suggested by increased depth on the same (opposite) side of the market leads to less (more) aggressive orders in smaller (larger) size. This holds for the depths at both the best and off-best prices, even though off-best depths are not observable to dealers.

Suggested Citation

  • Ingrid Lo & Stephen Sapp, 2007. "Order Aggressiveness and Quantity: How Are They Determined in a Limit Order Market?," Staff Working Papers 07-23, Bank of Canada.
  • Handle: RePEc:bca:bocawp:07-23
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    Cited by:

    1. Smales, Lee A., 2016. "Order aggressiveness of different broker-types in response to monetary policy news," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 40(PB), pages 367-383.
    2. Coluzzi, Chiara & Ginebri, Sergio, 2008. "Order Dynamics in the Italian Treasury Security Wholesale Secondary Market," Economics & Statistics Discussion Papers esdp08050, University of Molise, Dept. EGSeI.
    3. Katarzyna Bień-Barkowska, 2014. "“Every move you make, every step you take, I’ll be watching you” – the quest for hidden orders in the interbank FX spot market," Bank i Kredyt, Narodowy Bank Polski, vol. 45(3), pages 197-224.
    4. Martin D. Gould & Mason A. Porter & Stacy Williams & Mark McDonald & Daniel J. Fenn & Sam D. Howison, 2013. "Limit order books," Quantitative Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 13(11), pages 1709-1742, November.
    5. Stenfors, Alexis & Susai, Masayuki, 2021. "Spoofing and pinging in foreign exchange markets," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 70(C).
    6. Sirimon Treepongkaruna & Robert Brooks & Stephen Gray, 2012. "Do trading hours affect volatility links in the foreign exchange market?," Australian Journal of Management, Australian School of Business, vol. 37(1), pages 7-27, April.
    7. Tseng, Yi-Heng & Chen, Shu-Heng, 2015. "Limit order book transparency and order aggressiveness at the closing call: Lessons from the TWSE 2012 new information disclosure mechanism," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 35(PA), pages 241-272.
    8. Lien, Donald & Hung, Pi-Hsia & Lin, Zong-Wei, 2020. "Whose trades move stock prices? Evidence from the Taiwan Stock Exchange," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 66(C), pages 25-50.
    9. S. C. P. Yam & W. Zhou, 2017. "Optimal Liquidation of Child Limit Orders," Mathematics of Operations Research, INFORMS, vol. 42(2), pages 517-545, May.
    10. Alexis Stenfor & Masayuki Susai, 2021. "Stealth Trading in FX Markets," Working Papers in Economics & Finance 2021-02, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth Business School, Economics and Finance Subject Group.
    11. Będowska-Sójka, Barbara, 2020. "Do aggressive orders affect liquidity? An evidence from an emerging market," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 54(C).
    12. Martin D. Gould & Mason A. Porter & Stacy Williams & Mark McDonald & Daniel J. Fenn & Sam D. Howison, 2010. "Limit Order Books," Papers 1012.0349, arXiv.org, revised Apr 2013.
    13. Hung, Pi-Hsia, 2016. "Investor sentiment, order submission, and investment performance on the Taiwan Stock Exchange," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 39(C), pages 124-140.
    14. Lien, Donald & Hung, Pi-Hsia & Chen, Hung-Ju, 2021. "Who knows more and makes more? A perspective of order submission decisions across investor types," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 79(C), pages 381-398.
    15. Stenfors, Alexis & Susai, Masayuki, 2019. "Liquidity withdrawal in the FX spot market: A cross-country study using high-frequency data," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 59(C), pages 36-57.
    16. Wei Cui & Anthony Brabazon & Michael O'Neill, 2011. "Dynamic trade execution: a grammatical evolution approach," International Journal of Financial Markets and Derivatives, Inderscience Enterprises Ltd, vol. 2(1/2), pages 4-31.
    17. King, Michael R. & Osler, Carol L. & Rime, Dagfinn, 2013. "The market microstructure approach to foreign exchange: Looking back and looking forward," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 38(C), pages 95-119.
    18. Katarzyna Bień-Barkowska, 2014. "Capturing Order Book Dynamics in the Interbank EUR/PLN Spot Market," Emerging Markets Finance and Trade, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 50(1), pages 93-117, January.
    19. Martin D. Gould & Mason A. Porter & Sam D. Howison, 2015. "Quasi-Centralized Limit Order Books," Papers 1502.00680, arXiv.org, revised Oct 2016.
    20. Lallouache, Mehdi & Abergel, Frédéric, 2014. "Tick size reduction and price clustering in a FX order book," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 416(C), pages 488-498.
    21. Ledenyov, Dimitri O. & Ledenyov, Viktor O., 2015. "Wave function method to forecast foreign currencies exchange rates at ultra high frequency electronic trading in foreign currencies exchange markets," MPRA Paper 67470, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    22. Valenzuela, Marcela & Zer, Ilknur, 2013. "Competition, signaling and non-walking through the book: Effects on order choice," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(12), pages 5421-5435.
    23. Alexis Stenfors & Masayuki Susai, 2017. "Algorithmic Trading Behaviour and High-Frequency Liquidity Withdrawal in the FX Spot Market," Working Papers in Economics & Finance 2017-04, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth Business School, Economics and Finance Subject Group.

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    Keywords

    Exchange rates; Financial markets;

    JEL classification:

    • G14 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Information and Market Efficiency; Event Studies; Insider Trading

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