IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/
MyIDEAS: Login to save this paper or follow this series

Order Aggressiveness and Quantity: How Are They Determined in a Limit Order Market?

  • Ingrid Lo
  • Stephen G. Sapp

Dealers trading in a limit order market must choose both the order aggressiveness and the quantity for their orders. We empirically investigate how dealers jointly make these decisions in the foreign exchange market using a unique simultaneous equations model. The model uses an ordered probit model to account for the discrete nature of order aggressiveness and a censored regression model to capture the clustering of orders placed at the smallest available quantity, $1 million. We find evidence of a clear trade-off between order aggressiveness and quantity: more aggressive orders tend to be smaller in size. The increased competition (demand) suggested by increased depth on the same (opposite) side of the market leads to less (more) aggressive orders in smaller (larger) size. This holds for the depths at both the best and off-best prices, even though off-best depths are not observable to dealers.

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

File URL: http://www.bankofcanada.ca/wp-content/uploads/2010/03/wp07-23.pdf
Download Restriction: no

Paper provided by Bank of Canada in its series Working Papers with number 07-23.

as
in new window

Length: 46 pages
Date of creation: 2007
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:bca:bocawp:07-23
Contact details of provider: Postal: 234 Wellington Street, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0G9, Canada
Phone: 613 782-8845
Fax: 613 782-8874
Web page: http://www.bank-banque-canada.ca/

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

as in new window
  1. Ronald L. Goettler & Christine A. Parlour & Uday Rajan, 2005. "Equilibrium in a Dynamic Limit Order Market," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 60(5), pages 2149-2192, October.
  2. Goettler, Ronald L. & Parlour, Christine A. & Rajan, Uday, 2009. "Informed traders and limit order markets," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 93(1), pages 67-87, July.
  3. Engle, Robert F. & Patton, Andrew J., 2004. "Impacts of trades in an error-correction model of quote prices," Journal of Financial Markets, Elsevier, vol. 7(1), pages 1-25, January.
  4. Thierry Foucault & Ohad Kadan & Eugene Kandel, 2005. "Limit Order Book as a Market for Liquidity," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 18(4), pages 1171-1217.
  5. Hamao, Yasushi & Hasbrouck, Joel, 1995. "Securities Trading in the Absence of Dealers: Trades and Quotes on the Tokyo Stock Exchange," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 8(3), pages 849-78.
  6. Robert F. Engle, 1996. "The Econometrics of Ultra-High Frequency Data," NBER Working Papers 5816, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  7. Viswanathan, S. & Wang, James J. D., 2002. "Market architecture: limit-order books versus dealership markets," Journal of Financial Markets, Elsevier, vol. 5(2), pages 127-167, April.
  8. Al-Suhaibani, Mohammad & Kryzanowski, Lawrence, 2000. "An exploratory analysis of the order book, and order flow and execution on the Saudi stock market," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 24(8), pages 1323-1357, August.
  9. Dridi, Ramdan & Germain, Laurent, 2004. "Bullish/Bearish Strategies of Trading: A Nonlinear Equilibrium," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 39(04), pages 873-886, December.
  10. Kyle, Albert S, 1985. "Continuous Auctions and Insider Trading," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 53(6), pages 1315-35, November.
  11. Martin Evans, 2000. "FX trading and Exchange Rate Dynamics," Working Papers gueconwpa~00-00-04, Georgetown University, Department of Economics.
  12. Kaul, Aditya & Sapp, Stephen, 2009. "Trading activity, dealer concentration and foreign exchange market quality," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 33(11), pages 2122-2131, November.
  13. Parlour, Christine A, 1998. "Price Dynamics in Limit Order Markets," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 11(4), pages 789-816.
  14. Glosten, Lawrence R, 1994. " Is the Electronic Open Limit Order Book Inevitable?," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 49(4), pages 1127-61, September.
  15. Anthony Hall & Nikolaus Hautsch, 2006. "Order aggressiveness and order book dynamics," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 30(4), pages 973-1005, January.
  16. Ellul, Andrew & Holden, Craig W. & Jain, Pankaj & Jennings, Robert, 2007. "Order dynamics: Recent evidence from the NYSE," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 14(5), pages 636-661, December.
  17. Andrew Ellul, 2003. "A Comprehensive Test of Order Choice Theory:Recent Evidence from the NYSE," FMG Discussion Papers dp471, Financial Markets Group.
  18. Diamond, Douglas W. & Verrecchia, Robert E., 1987. "Constraints on short-selling and asset price adjustment to private information," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(2), pages 277-311, June.
  19. Domowitz, Ian, 1993. "A taxonomy of automated trade execution systems," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 12(6), pages 607-631, December.
  20. Ron Kaniel & Hong Liu, 2006. "So What Orders Do Informed Traders Use?," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 79(4), pages 1867-1914, July.
  21. Foucault, Thierry, 1999. "Order flow composition and trading costs in a dynamic limit order market1," Journal of Financial Markets, Elsevier, vol. 2(2), pages 99-134, May.
  22. Osler, Carol L. & Mende, Alexander & Menkhoff, Lukas, 2011. "Price discovery in currency markets," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 30(8), pages 1696-1718.
  23. Evans, Martin D. D. & Lyons, Richard K., 2002. "Time-varying liquidity in foreign exchange," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 49(5), pages 1025-1051, July.
  24. Glosten, Lawrence R, 1987. " Components of the Bid-Ask Spread and the Statistical Properties of Transaction Prices," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 42(5), pages 1293-1307, December.
  25. Martin D.D. Evans & Richard K. Lyons, 1999. "Order Flow and Exchange Rate Dynamics," NBER Working Papers 7317, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  26. Ranaldo, Angelo, 2004. "Order aggressiveness in limit order book markets," Journal of Financial Markets, Elsevier, vol. 7(1), pages 53-74, January.
  27. Michael J. Sager & Mark P. Taylor, 2006. "Under the microscope: the structure of the foreign exchange market," International Journal of Finance & Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 11(1), pages 81-95.
  28. Easley, David & O'Hara, Maureen, 1992. " Time and the Process of Security Price Adjustment," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 47(2), pages 576-605, June.
  29. Biais, Bruno & Hillion, Pierre & Spatt, Chester, 1995. " An Empirical Analysis of the Limit Order Book and the Order Flow in the Paris Bourse," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 50(5), pages 1655-89, December.
  30. Nelson, Forrest & Olson, Lawrence, 1978. "Specification and Estimation of a Simultaneous-Equation Model with Limited Dependent Variables," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 19(3), pages 695-709, October.
  31. Kumar, Praveen & Seppi, Duane J, 1992. " Futures Manipulation with "Cash Settlement."," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 47(4), pages 1485-502, September.
  32. Carlson, John A. & Lo, Melody, 2006. "One minute in the life of the DM/US$: Public news in an electronic market," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 25(7), pages 1090-1102, November.
  33. Hee-Joon Ahn, 2001. "Limit Orders, Depth, and Volatility: Evidence from the Stock Exchange of Hong Kong," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 56(2), pages 767-788, 04.
  34. Hall, Anthony D. & Hautsch, Nikolaus, 2007. "Modelling the buy and sell intensity in a limit order book market," Journal of Financial Markets, Elsevier, vol. 10(3), pages 249-286, August.
  35. Cohen, Kalman J, et al, 1981. "Transaction Costs, Order Placement Strategy, and Existence of the Bid-Ask Spread," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 89(2), pages 287-305, April.
  36. Handa, Puneet & Schwartz, Robert A, 1996. " Limit Order Trading," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 51(5), pages 1835-61, December.
  37. Geir H. Bjønnes & Carol L. Osler & Dagfinn Rime, 2009. "Asymmetric information in the interbank foreign exchange market," Working Paper 2008/25, Norges Bank.
  38. Charles Cao & Oliver Hansch & Xiaoxin Wang, 2008. "Order Placement Strategies In A Pure Limit Order Book Market," Journal of Financial Research, Southern Finance Association;Southwestern Finance Association, vol. 31(2), pages 113-140.
  39. Charles Goodhart & Takatoshi Ito & Richard Payne, 1996. "One Day in June 1993: A Study of the Working of the Reuters 2000-2 Electronic Foreign Exchange Trading System," NBER Chapters, in: The Microstructure of Foreign Exchange Markets, pages 107-182 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  40. Lo, Ingrid & Sapp, Stephen G., 2008. "The submission of limit orders or market orders: The role of timing and information in the Reuters D2000-2 system," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 27(7), pages 1056-1073, November.
  41. Ho, Thomas S Y & Stoll, Hans R, 1983. " The Dynamics of Dealer Markets under Competition," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 38(4), pages 1053-74, September.
  42. Davies, Ryan J., 2003. "The Toronto Stock Exchange preopening session," Journal of Financial Markets, Elsevier, vol. 6(4), pages 491-516, August.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:bca:bocawp:07-23. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: ()

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.