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Limit Order Book as a Market for Liquidity

  • Thierry Foucault

    ()

  • Ohad Kadan

    ()

  • Eugene Kandel

    ()

We develop a dynamic model of an order-driven market populated by discretionary liquidity traders. These traders differ by their impatience and seek to minimize their trading costs by optimally choosing between market and limit orders. We characterize the equilibrium order placement strategies and the waiting times for limit orders. In equilibrium less patient traders are likely to demand liquidity, more patient traders are more likely to provide it. We find that the resiliency of the limit order book increases with the proportion of patient traders and decreases with the order arrival rate. Furthermore, the spread is negatively related to the proportion of patient traders and the order arrival rate. We show that these findings yield testable predictions on the relation between the trading intensity and the spread. Moreover, the model generates predictions for time-series and cross-sectional variation in the optimal order-submission strategies. Finally, we find that imposing a minimum price variation improves the resiliency of a limit order market. For this reason, reducing the minimum price variation does not necessarily reduce the average spread in limit order markets.

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Paper provided by The Federmann Center for the Study of Rationality, the Hebrew University, Jerusalem in its series Discussion Paper Series with number dp321.

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Length: 66 pages
Date of creation: Jan 2003
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:huj:dispap:dp321
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  6. Biais, Bruno & Hillion, Pierre & Spatt, Chester, 1995. " An Empirical Analysis of the Limit Order Book and the Order Flow in the Paris Bourse," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 50(5), pages 1655-89, December.
  7. Degryse, H.A. & de Jong, F.C.J.M. & van Ravenswaaij, M. & Wuyts, G., 2002. "Aggressive Orders and the Resiliency of a Limit Order Market," Discussion Paper 2002-80, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
  8. Chung, Kee H. & Van Ness, Bonnie F. & Van Ness, Robert A., 1999. "Limit orders and the bid-ask spread," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 53(2), pages 255-287, August.
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  10. Hollifield, Burton & Miller, Robert A. & Sandås, Patrik & Slive, Joshua, 2002. "Liquidity Supply and Demand in Limit Order Markets," CEPR Discussion Papers 3676, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  11. Madhavan, Ananth, 2000. "Market microstructure: A survey," Journal of Financial Markets, Elsevier, vol. 3(3), pages 205-258, August.
  12. Madhavan, Ananth & Richardson, Matthew & Roomans, Mark, 1997. "Why Do Security Prices Change? A Transaction-Level Analysis of NYSE Stocks," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 10(4), pages 1035-64.
  13. Griffiths, Mark D. & Smith, Brian F. & Turnbull, D. Alasdair S. & White, Robert W., 2000. "The costs and determinants of order aggressiveness," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 56(1), pages 65-88, April.
  14. Engle, Robert F. & Patton, Andrew J., 2004. "Impacts of trades in an error-correction model of quote prices," Journal of Financial Markets, Elsevier, vol. 7(1), pages 1-25, January.
  15. Seppi, Duane J, 1997. "Liquidity Provision with Limit Orders and a Strategic Specialist," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 10(1), pages 103-50.
  16. Kenneth A. Kavajecz, 1999. "A Specialist's Quoted Depth and the Limit Order Book," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 54(2), pages 747-771, 04.
  17. Joel Hasbrouck, 1999. "Trading Fast and Slow: Security Market Events in Real Time," New York University, Leonard N. Stern School Finance Department Working Paper Seires 99-012, New York University, Leonard N. Stern School of Business-.
  18. Chakravarty Sugato & Holden Craig W., 1995. "An Integrated Model of Market and Limit Orders," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 4(3), pages 213-241, July.
  19. Parlour, Christine A, 1998. "Price Dynamics in Limit Order Markets," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 11(4), pages 789-816.
  20. Handa, Puneet & Schwartz, Robert A, 1996. " Limit Order Trading," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 51(5), pages 1835-61, December.
  21. Anat R. Admati, Paul Pfleiderer, 1988. "A Theory of Intraday Patterns: Volume and Price Variability," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 1(1), pages 3-40.
  22. George, Thomas J & Kaul, Gautam & Nimalendran, M, 1991. "Estimation of the Bid-Ask Spread and Its Components: A New Approach," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 4(4), pages 623-56.
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