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Liquidity Supply and Demand in Limit Order Markets

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  • Hollifield, Burton
  • Miller, Robert A.
  • Sandås, Patrik
  • Slive, Joshua

Abstract

We model a trader’s decision to supply liquidity by submitting limit orders or demand liquidity by submitting market orders in a limit order market. The best quotes and the execution probabilities and picking off risks of limit orders determine the price of immediacy. The price of immediacy and the trader’s willingness to pay for immediacy determine the trader’s optimal order submission, with the trader’s willingness to pay for immediacy depending on the trader’s valuation for the stock. We estimate the execution probabilities and the picking off risks using a sample from the Vancouver Stock Exchange to compute the price of immediacy. The price of immediacy changes with market conditions — a trader’s optimal order submission changes with market conditions. We combine the price of immediacy with the actual order submissions to estimate the unobserved arrival rates of traders and the distribution of the traders’ valuations. High realized stock volatility increases the arrival rate of traders and increases the number of value traders arriving — liquidity supply is more competitive after periods of high volatility. An increase in the spread decreases the arrival rate of traders and decreases the number of value traders arriving — liquidity supply is less competitive when the spread widens.

Suggested Citation

  • Hollifield, Burton & Miller, Robert A. & Sandås, Patrik & Slive, Joshua, 2002. "Liquidity Supply and Demand in Limit Order Markets," CEPR Discussion Papers 3676, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  • Handle: RePEc:cpr:ceprdp:3676
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Burton Hollifield & Robert A. Miller & Patrik Sandås, 2004. "Empirical Analysis of Limit Order Markets," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 71(4), pages 1027-1063.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Thierry Foucault & Ohad Kadan & Eugene Kandel, 2005. "Limit Order Book as a Market for Liquidity," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 18(4), pages 1171-1217.
    2. Anthony D. Hall & Nikolaus Hautsch, 2008. "Order aggressiveness and order book dynamics," Studies in Empirical Economics, in: Luc Bauwens & Winfried Pohlmeier & David Veredas (ed.), High Frequency Financial Econometrics, pages 133-165, Springer.
    3. Jeremy Large, 2004. "Cancellation and uncertainty aversion on limit order books," OFRC Working Papers Series 2004fe04, Oxford Financial Research Centre.
    4. Anthony D. Hall & Nikolaus Hautsch, 2004. "A Continuous-Time Measurement of the Buy-Sell Pressure in a Limit Order Book Market," Research Paper Series 121, Quantitative Finance Research Centre, University of Technology, Sydney.
    5. John A. Carlson & Christian M. Dahl & Carol L. Osler, 2008. "Short-run Exchange-rate Dynamics: Theory And Evidence," Working Papers 39, Brandeis University, Department of Economics and International Businesss School.
    6. Ioanid Rosu, 2009. "A Dynamic Model of the Limit Order Book," Post-Print hal-00515873, HAL.
    7. Gau, Yin-Feng & Wu, Zhen-Xing, 2014. "Order choices under information asymmetry in foreign exchange markets," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 30(C), pages 106-118.
    8. Ingrid Lo & Stephen Sapp, 2005. "Order Submission: The Choice between Limit and Market Orders," Staff Working Papers 05-42, Bank of Canada.
    9. Carlson, John A. & Lo, Melody, 2006. "One minute in the life of the DM/US$: Public news in an electronic market," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 25(7), pages 1090-1102, November.
    10. Ioanid Rosu, 2009. "A Dynamic Model of the Limit Order Book," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 22(11), pages 4601-4641, November.
    11. Brunel, Alexandre, 2011. "Impact des rachats d’actions sur la liquidité et la rentabilité des actions," Economics Thesis from University Paris Dauphine, Paris Dauphine University, number 123456789/6404 edited by Hamon, Jacques, October.
    12. Hall, Anthony D. & Hautsch, Nikolaus, 2007. "Modelling the buy and sell intensity in a limit order book market," Journal of Financial Markets, Elsevier, vol. 10(3), pages 249-286, August.
    13. Carol L. Osler, 2006. "Macro lessons from microstructure," International Journal of Finance & Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 11(1), pages 55-80.
    14. Ellul, Andrew & Holden, Craig W. & Jain, Pankaj & Jennings, Robert, 2003. "A comprehensive test of order choice theory: recent evidence from the NYSE," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 24896, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
    15. Bruce Lehmann, 2008. "Arbitrage-free Limit Order Books and the Pricing of Order Flow Risk," NBER Working Papers 13848, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    discrete choice; high frequency data; limit orders; liquidity; market orders;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • C25 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Discrete Regression and Qualitative Choice Models; Discrete Regressors; Proportions; Probabilities
    • C41 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods: Special Topics - - - Duration Analysis; Optimal Timing Strategies
    • G14 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Information and Market Efficiency; Event Studies; Insider Trading
    • G15 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - International Financial Markets

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