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Limit Order Book as a Market for Liquidity

  • Foucault, Thierry
  • Kadan, Ohad
  • Kandel, Eugene

We develop a dynamic model of an order-driven market populated by discretionary liquidity traders. These traders must trade, yet can choose the type of order and are fully strategic in their decision. Traders differ in their impatience: less patient traders demand liquidity, more patient traders provide it. Three equilibrium patterns are obtained, and these patterns are determined by three parameters: the degree of impatience on the part of patient traders, which we model as the cost of execution delay in providing liquidity; their proportion in the population, which determines the degree of competition among the liquidity providers; and the tick size, which is the cost of the minimal price improvement. Despite its simplicity, the model generates a rich set of empirical predictions on the relation between market parameters, time to execution, and spreads.

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Paper provided by C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers in its series CEPR Discussion Papers with number 2889.

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Date of creation: Aug 2001
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Handle: RePEc:cpr:ceprdp:2889
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  1. Hollifield, Burton & Miller, Robert & Sandås, Patrik, 2001. "Empirical Analysis of Limit Order Markets," CEPR Discussion Papers 2843, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  2. Degryse, H.A. & de Jong, F.C.J.M. & van Ravenswaaij, M. & Wuyts, G., 2002. "Aggressive Orders and the Resiliency of a Limit Order Market," Discussion Paper 2002-80, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
  3. Parlour, Christine A, 1998. "Price Dynamics in Limit Order Markets," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 11(4), pages 789-816.
  4. Engle, Robert F & Patton, Andrew J, 2000. "Impacts of Trades in an Error-Correction Model of Quote Prices," University of California at San Diego, Economics Working Paper Series qt6dm6093f, Department of Economics, UC San Diego.
  5. Anat R. Admati, Paul Pfleiderer, 1988. "A Theory of Intraday Patterns: Volume and Price Variability," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 1(1), pages 3-40.
  6. Chung, Kee H. & Van Ness, Bonnie F. & Van Ness, Robert A., 1999. "Limit orders and the bid-ask spread," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 53(2), pages 255-287, August.
  7. Biais, Bruno & Hillion, Pierre & Spatt, Chester, 1995. " An Empirical Analysis of the Limit Order Book and the Order Flow in the Paris Bourse," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 50(5), pages 1655-89, December.
  8. Hollifield, Burton & Miller, Robert A. & Sandås, Patrik & Slive, Joshua, 2002. "Liquidity Supply and Demand in Limit Order Markets," CEPR Discussion Papers 3676, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  9. Huang, Roger D & Stoll, Hans R, 1997. "The Components of the Bid-Ask Spread: A General Approach," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 10(4), pages 995-1034.
  10. George, Thomas J & Kaul, Gautam & Nimalendran, M, 1991. "Estimation of the Bid-Ask Spread and Its Components: A New Approach," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 4(4), pages 623-56.
  11. Sugato Chakravarty & Craig Holden, 2002. "An Integrated Model of Market and Limit Orders," Finance 0201004, EconWPA.
  12. Handa, Puneet & Schwartz, Robert A, 1996. " Limit Order Trading," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 51(5), pages 1835-61, December.
  13. Joel Hasbrouck, 1999. "Trading Fast and Slow: Security Market Events in Real Time," New York University, Leonard N. Stern School Finance Department Working Paper Seires 99-012, New York University, Leonard N. Stern School of Business-.
  14. Ananth Madhavan & Matthew Richardson & Mark Roomans, 1996. "Why Do Security Prices Change? A Transaction-Level Analysis of NYSE Stocks," New York University, Leonard N. Stern School Finance Department Working Paper Seires 96-34, New York University, Leonard N. Stern School of Business-.
  15. Kenneth A. Kavajecz, 1999. "A Specialist's Quoted Depth and the Limit Order Book," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 54(2), pages 747-771, 04.
  16. S. Baranzoni & P. Bianchi & L. Lambertini, 2000. "Market Structure," Working Papers 368, Dipartimento Scienze Economiche, Universita' di Bologna.
  17. Seppi, Duane J, 1997. "Liquidity Provision with Limit Orders and a Strategic Specialist," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 10(1), pages 103-50.
  18. Keim, Donald B. & Madhavan, Ananth, 1995. "Anatomy of the trading process Empirical evidence on the behavior of institutional traders," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 37(3), pages 371-398, March.
  19. Domowitz, Ian & Wang, Jianxin, 1994. "Auctions as algorithms : Computerized trade execution and price discovery," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 18(1), pages 29-60, January.
  20. Foucault, Thierry, 1999. "Order flow composition and trading costs in a dynamic limit order market1," Journal of Financial Markets, Elsevier, vol. 2(2), pages 99-134, May.
  21. Madhavan, Ananth, 2000. "Market microstructure: A survey," Journal of Financial Markets, Elsevier, vol. 3(3), pages 205-258, August.
  22. Griffiths, Mark D. & Smith, Brian F. & Turnbull, D. Alasdair S. & White, Robert W., 2000. "The costs and determinants of order aggressiveness," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 56(1), pages 65-88, April.
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