IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/
MyIDEAS: Login to save this book or follow this series

The Microstructure of Trading Processes on the Singapore Exchange

  • Murphy Jun Jie Lee
Registered author(s):

    This thesis contains three papers that examine various issues pertaining to the market structure and trading processes on the Singapore Exchange (SGX). Through the use of proprietary data from SGX, each paper addresses a unique area that is often overlooked in literature but is a well-documented practice among market participants in global financial markets. The conclusions drawn from these papers provide a thorough understanding of the structure and trading processes used on SGX. Hence, empirical evidence presented in this thesis will be of considerable interest to academics and non-academics alike. In particular, the evidence presented here can potentially aid policy developments for the Singapore financial market. The first paper investigates the effects of a reduction in the minimum tick size on SGX. Although both quoted and effective spreads are found to decrease, trading volume and market depth are adversely affected. Despite this, execution quality has not worsened. Front-running behaviour, an area which is keenly discussed in the literature but not tested directly due to data limitations, is also examined. Conducting a direct test on order submissions shows that the tick size reduction has caused front-running to exacerbate. The second paper examines the price impact costs of all trades. Although investors are known to break up large trades into smaller orders, a majority of the empirical literature calculates price impact costs from individual trades. Through implementing a more accurate re-packaging process, this paper shows that misleading results might be inferred when an individual trade is supposedly part of a trade package. In addition, this paper extends the literature by proposing a new measure to evaluate the execution performance of trade packages. The third paper examines the evolution of liquidity in a pure order-driven market. Two distinct sets of literature dominate this area. One set suggests that liquidity provision can be entirely endogenous, thus eschewing the need for designated market makers. The other argues and presents empirical evidence into the importance of designated market makers. However, the former overlooks the known fact that some traders follow a market making strategy. Hence, this paper proposes that pseudo market makers might already exist in a pure order-driven market. Examining order submissions from access to information for all trading accounts, the evidence shows that the largest active trading accounts act as pseudo market makers. This result suggests that liquidity formation is not only intertwined between informed and uninformed investors, but also shows that pseudo market makers play an important role in the evolution of liquidity.

    If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

    File URL: https://opus.lib.uts.edu.au/bitstream/10453/21434/6/02Whole.pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    as
    in new window

    This book is provided by Finance Discipline Group, UTS Business School, University of Technology, Sydney in its series PhD Thesis with number 4 and published in 2013.
    Handle: RePEc:uts:finphd:4
    Contact details of provider: Postal:
    PO Box 123, Broadway, NSW 2007, Australia

    Phone: +61 2 9514 7777
    Fax: +61 2 9514 7711
    Web page: http://www.uts.edu.au/about/uts-business-school/finance

    More information through EDIRC

    References listed on IDEAS
    Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

    as in new window
    1. O'Hara, Maureen & Oldfield, George S., 1986. "The Microeconomics of Market Making," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 21(04), pages 361-376, December.
    2. Juhani T. Linnainmaa & Gideon Saar, 2012. "Lack of Anonymity and the Inference from Order Flow," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 25(5), pages 1414-1456.
    3. Bloomfield, Robert & O'Hara, Maureen & Saar, Gideon, 2005. "The "make or take" decision in an electronic market: Evidence on the evolution of liquidity," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 75(1), pages 165-199, January.
    4. Lease, Ronald C & Masulis, Ronald W & Page, John R, 1991. " An Investigation of Market Microstructure Impacts on Event Study Returns," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 46(4), pages 1523-36, September.
    5. Chakravarty, Sugato, 2001. "Stealth-trading: Which traders' trades move stock prices?," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 61(2), pages 289-307, August.
    6. Ranaldo, Angelo, 2004. "Order aggressiveness in limit order book markets," Journal of Financial Markets, Elsevier, vol. 7(1), pages 53-74, January.
    7. Venkataraman, Kumar & Waisburd, Andrew C., 2007. "The Value of the Designated Market Maker," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 42(03), pages 735-758, September.
    8. Alex Frino & Teddy Oetomo, 2005. "Slippage in futures markets: Evidence from the Sydney Futures Exchange," Journal of Futures Markets, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 25(12), pages 1129-1146, December.
    9. Thierry Foucault & Tito Cordella, 1999. "Minimum Price Variations, Time Priority and Quote Dynamics," Post-Print hal-00459772, HAL.
    10. Thierry Foucault & Ohad Kadan & Eugene Kandel, 2003. "Limit Order Book as a Market for Liquidity," Discussion Paper Series dp321, The Federmann Center for the Study of Rationality, the Hebrew University, Jerusalem.
    11. Grossman, Sanford J & Miller, Merton H, 1988. " Liquidity and Market Structure," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 43(3), pages 617-37, July.
    12. Anand, Amber & Chakravarty, Sugato & Martell, Terrence, 2005. "Empirical evidence on the evolution of liquidity: Choice of market versus limit orders by informed and uninformed traders," Journal of Financial Markets, Elsevier, vol. 8(3), pages 288-308, August.
    13. John M. Griffin & Jeffrey H. Harris & Selim Topaloglu, 2003. "The Dynamics of Institutional and Individual Trading," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 58(6), pages 2285-2320, December.
    14. Holthausen, Robert W. & Leftwich, Richard W. & Mayers, David, 1987. "The effect of large block transactions on security prices: A cross-sectional analysis," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 19(2), pages 237-267, December.
    15. Van Ness, Bonnie F & Van Ness, Robert A & Pruitt, Stephen W, 2000. " The Impact of the Reduction in Tick Increments in Major U.S. Markets on Spreads, Depth, and Volatility," Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting, Springer, vol. 15(2), pages 153-67, September.
    16. Alex Frino & Jennifer Kruk & Andrew Lepone, 2007. "Transactions in futures markets: Informed or uninformed?," Journal of Futures Markets, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 27(12), pages 1159-1174, December.
    17. Pantisa Pavabutr & Sukanya Prangwattananon, 2009. "Tick size change on the Stock Exchange of Thailand," Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting, Springer, vol. 32(4), pages 351-371, May.
    18. Saar, Gideon, 2001. "Price Impact Asymmetry of Block Trades: An Institutional Trading Explanation," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 14(4), pages 1153-81.
    19. Handa, Puneet & Schwartz, Robert A, 1996. " Limit Order Trading," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 51(5), pages 1835-61, December.
    20. Sugato Chakravarty & Bonnie F. Van Ness & Robert A. Van Ness, 2005. "The Effect of Decimalization on Trade Size and Adverse Selection Costs," Journal of Business Finance & Accounting, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 32(5-6), pages 1063-1081.
    21. Hasbrouck, Joel, 1991. "The Summary Informativeness of Stock Trades: An Econometric Analysis," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 4(3), pages 571-95.
    22. Yakov Amihud & Haim Mendelson & Beni Lauterbach, 1997. "Market Microstructure and Securities Values: Evidence from the Tel Aviv Stock Exchange," New York University, Leonard N. Stern School Finance Department Working Paper Seires 98-004, New York University, Leonard N. Stern School of Business-.
    23. Sigridur Benediktsdottir, 2006. "An empirical analysis of specialist trading behavior at the New York Stock Exchange," International Finance Discussion Papers 876, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    24. Anand, Amber & Weaver, Daniel G., 2006. "The value of the specialist: Empirical evidence from the CBOE," Journal of Financial Markets, Elsevier, vol. 9(2), pages 100-118, May.
    25. Bessembinder, Hendrik, 2003. "Trade Execution Costs and Market Quality after Decimalization," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 38(04), pages 747-777, December.
    26. Chan, Louis K C & Lakonishok, Josef, 1995. " The Behavior of Stock Prices around Institutional Trades," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 50(4), pages 1147-74, September.
    27. Keim, Donald B. & Madhavan, Ananth, 1997. "Transactions costs and investment style: an inter-exchange analysis of institutional equity trades," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 46(3), pages 265-292, December.
    28. Bacidore, Jeffrey M., 1997. "The Impact of Decimalization on Market Quality: An Empirical Investigation of the Toronto Stock Exchange," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 6(2), pages 92-120, April.
    29. David Bourghelle & F. Declerck, 2004. "Why Markets Should not Necessarily Reduce the Tick Size," Post-Print hal-00677711, HAL.
    30. Ioanid Rosu, 2009. "A Dynamic Model of the Limit Order Book," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 22(11), pages 4601-4641, November.
    31. Harris, Lawrence E, 1994. "Minimum Price Variations, Discrete Bid-Ask Spreads, and Quotation Sizes," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 7(1), pages 149-78.
    32. Andros Gregoriou, 2007. "The Asymmetry of the Price Impact of Block Trades and the Bid-Ask Spread. Evidence from the London Stock Exchange," Money Macro and Finance (MMF) Research Group Conference 2006 76, Money Macro and Finance Research Group.
    33. Parlour, Christine A, 1998. "Price Dynamics in Limit Order Markets," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 11(4), pages 789-816.
    34. Mikkelson, Wayne H. & Partch, M. Megan, 1985. "Stock price effects and costs of secondary distributions," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 14(2), pages 165-194, June.
    35. Amihud, Yakov & Mendelson, Haim, 1980. "Dealership market : Market-making with inventory," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 8(1), pages 31-53, March.
    36. Sofianos, George & Werner, Ingrid M., 2000. "The trades of NYSE floor brokers," Journal of Financial Markets, Elsevier, vol. 3(2), pages 139-176, May.
    37. Newey, Whitney K & West, Kenneth D, 1987. "A Simple, Positive Semi-definite, Heteroskedasticity and Autocorrelation Consistent Covariance Matrix," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 55(3), pages 703-08, May.
    38. Chou, Robin K. & Wang, George H.K. & Wang, Yun-Yi & Bjursell, Johan, 2011. "The impacts of large trades by trader types on intraday futures prices: Evidence from the Taiwan Futures Exchange," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 19(1), pages 41-70, January.
    39. Terrance Odean, 1999. "Do Investors Trade Too Much?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 89(5), pages 1279-1298, December.
    40. Michael Aitken & Carole Comerton-Forde, 2005. "Do reductions in tick sizes influence liquidity?," Accounting and Finance, Accounting and Finance Association of Australia and New Zealand, vol. 45(2), pages 171-184.
    41. De Long, J Bradford, et al, 1991. "The Survival of Noise Traders in Financial Markets," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 64(1), pages 1-19, January.
    42. Goettler, Ronald L. & Parlour, Christine A. & Rajan, Uday, 2009. "Informed traders and limit order markets," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 93(1), pages 67-87, July.
    43. Merton, Robert C., 1987. "A simple model of capital market equilibrium with incomplete information," Working papers 1869-87., Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Sloan School of Management.
    44. Foucault, Thierry, 1999. "Order flow composition and trading costs in a dynamic limit order market1," Journal of Financial Markets, Elsevier, vol. 2(2), pages 99-134, May.
    45. Easley, David & O'Hara, Maureen, 1987. "Price, trade size, and information in securities markets," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 19(1), pages 69-90, September.
    46. Hasbrouck, Joel & Saar, Gideon, 2009. "Technology and liquidity provision: The blurring of traditional definitions," Journal of Financial Markets, Elsevier, vol. 12(2), pages 143-172, May.
    47. Keim, Donald B. & Madhavan, Ananth, 1995. "Anatomy of the trading process Empirical evidence on the behavior of institutional traders," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 37(3), pages 371-398, March.
    48. Sugato Chakravarty & Craig Holden, 2002. "An Integrated Model of Market and Limit Orders," Finance 0201004, EconWPA.
    49. Madhavan, Ananth & Sofianos, George, 1998. "An empirical analysis of NYSE specialist trading," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 48(2), pages 189-210, May.
    50. Bikker, Jacob A. & Spierdijk, Laura & Sluis, Pieter Jelle van der, 2004. "The Implementation Shortfall of Institutional Equity Trades," Serie Research Memoranda 0009, VU University Amsterdam, Faculty of Economics, Business Administration and Econometrics.
    51. Christie William G. & Huang Roger D., 1994. "Market Structures and Liquidity: A Transactions Data Study of Exchange Listings," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 3(3), pages 300-326, June.
    52. Comerton-Forde, Carole & Tang, Kar Mei, 2009. "Anonymity, liquidity and fragmentation," Journal of Financial Markets, Elsevier, vol. 12(3), pages 337-367, August.
    53. Bollen, Nicolas P. B. & Busse, Jeffrey A., 2006. "Tick Size and Institutional Trading Costs: Evidence from Mutual Funds," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 41(04), pages 915-937, December.
    54. Gemmill, Gordon, 1996. " Transparency and Liquidity: A Study of Block Trades on the London Stock Exchange under Different Publication Rules," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 51(5), pages 1765-90, December.
    55. Ball, R. & Finn, F.J., 1989. "The Effect Of Block Transactions On Share Prices: Australian Evidence," Papers 89-04, Rochester, Business - Managerial Economics Research Center.
    56. Marshall E. Blume & Michael A. Goldstein, . "Displayed and Effective Spreads by Market (Revision of 4-92)," Rodney L. White Center for Financial Research Working Papers 27-92, Wharton School Rodney L. White Center for Financial Research.
    57. Copeland, Thomas E & Galai, Dan, 1983. " Information Effects on the Bid-Ask Spread," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 38(5), pages 1457-69, December.
    58. Lee, Charles M C & Ready, Mark J, 1991. " Inferring Trade Direction from Intraday Data," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 46(2), pages 733-46, June.
    59. Chung, Kee H. & Charoenwong, Charlie & Ding, David K., 2004. "Penny pricing and the components of spread and depth changes," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 28(12), pages 2981-3007, December.
    60. Kee H. Chung & Kenneth A. Kim & Pattanaporn Kitsabunnarat, 2005. "Liquidity And Quote Clustering In A Market With Multiple Tick Sizes," Journal of Financial Research, Southern Finance Association;Southwestern Finance Association, vol. 28(2), pages 177-195.
    61. Kraus, Alan & Stoll, Hans R, 1972. "Price Impacts of Block Trading on the New York Stock Exchange," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 27(3), pages 569-88, June.
    62. Kadan, Ohad, 2006. "So who gains from a small tick size?," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 15(1), pages 32-66, January.
    63. Brian F. Smith & D. Alasdair S. Turnbull & Robert W. White, 2006. "The Impact of Pennies on the Market Quality of the Toronto Stock Exchange," The Financial Review, Eastern Finance Association, vol. 41(2), pages 273-288, 05.
    64. Kenneth A. Kavajecz, 1999. "A Specialist's Quoted Depth and the Limit Order Book," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 54(2), pages 747-771, 04.
    65. Brad M. Barber & Terrance Odean & Ning Zhu, 2009. "Do Retail Trades Move Markets?," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 22(1), pages 151-186, January.
    66. MacKinnon, Greg & Nemiroff, Howard, 2004. "Tick size and the returns to providing liquidity," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 13(1), pages 57-73.
    67. Kiril Alampieski & Andrew Lepone, 2009. "Impact of a tick size reduction on liquidity: evidence from the Sydney Futures Exchange," Accounting and Finance, Accounting and Finance Association of Australia and New Zealand, vol. 49(1), pages 1-20.
    68. Hasabrouck, Joel & Sofianos, George, 1993. " The Trades of Market Makers: An Empirical Analysis of NYSE Specialists," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 48(5), pages 1565-93, December.
    69. Cohen, Kalman J, et al, 1981. "Transaction Costs, Order Placement Strategy, and Existence of the Bid-Ask Spread," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 89(2), pages 287-305, April.
    70. Aitken, Michael & Frino, Alex, 1996. "Execution costs associated with institutional trades on the Australian Stock Exchange," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 4(1), pages 45-58, May.
    71. Frino, Alex & Jarnecic, Elvis & Johnstone, David & Lepone, Andrew, 2005. "Bid-ask bounce and the measurement of price behavior around block trades on the Australian Stock Exchange," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 13(3), pages 247-262, June.
    72. Bacidore, Jeffrey M., 2001. "Decimalization, adverse selection, and market maker rents," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 25(5), pages 829-855, May.
    73. Shleifer, Andrei & Summers, Lawrence H, 1990. "The Noise Trader Approach to Finance," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 4(2), pages 19-33, Spring.
    74. Frino, Alex & Gerace, Dionigi & Lepone, Andrew, 2008. "Liquidity in auction and specialist market structures: Evidence from the Italian bourse," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(12), pages 2581-2588, December.
    75. Kyle, Albert S, 1985. "Continuous Auctions and Insider Trading," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 53(6), pages 1315-35, November.
    76. Holthausen, Robert W. & Leftwich, Richard W. & Mayers, David, 1990. "Large-block transactions, the speed of response, and temporary and permanent stock-price effects," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 26(1), pages 71-95, July.
    77. Ron Kaniel & Hong Liu, 2006. "So What Orders Do Informed Traders Use?," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 79(4), pages 1867-1914, July.
    78. Meir Statman & Steven Thorley & Keith Vorkink, 2006. "Investor Overconfidence and Trading Volume," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 19(4), pages 1531-1565.
    79. Tauchen, George E & Pitts, Mark, 1983. "The Price Variability-Volume Relationship on Speculative Markets," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 51(2), pages 485-505, March.
    80. Barclay, Michael J. & Warner, Jerold B., 1993. "Stealth trading and volatility : Which trades move prices?," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(3), pages 281-305, December.
    81. Ball, Ray & Finn, Frank J., 1989. "The effect of block transactions on share prices : Australian evidence," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 13(3), pages 397-419, July.
    82. Hamish D. Anderson & Sapphire Cooper & Andrew K. Prevost, 2006. "Block Trade Price Asymmetry and Changes in Depth: Evidence from the Australian Stock Exchange," The Financial Review, Eastern Finance Association, vol. 41(2), pages 247-271, 05.
    83. Glosten, Lawrence R, 1989. "Insider Trading, Liquidity, and the Role of the Monopolist Specialist," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 62(2), pages 211-35, April.
    84. Bourghelle, David & Declerck, Fany, 2004. "Why markets should not necessarily reduce the tick size," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 28(2), pages 373-398, February.
    85. Christopher Ting, 2006. "Which Daily Price is Less Noisy?," Financial Management, Financial Management Association International, vol. 35(3), pages 81-95, 09.
    86. Ian Domowitz & Jack Glen & Ananth Madhavan, 2000. "Liquidity, Volatility, and Equity Trading Costs Across Countries and Over Time," William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series 322, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
    87. Christie, William G & Harris, Jeffrey H & Schultz, Paul H, 1994. " Why Did NASDAQ Market Makers Stop Avoiding Odd-Eighth Quotes?," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 49(5), pages 1841-60, December.
    88. Eldor, Rafi & Hauser, Shmuel & Pilo, Batia & Shurki, Itzik, 2006. "The contribution of market makers to liquidity and efficiency of options trading in electronic markets," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 30(7), pages 2025-2040, July.
    89. Handa, Puneet & Schwartz, Robert & Tiwari, Ashish, 2003. "Quote setting and price formation in an order driven market," Journal of Financial Markets, Elsevier, vol. 6(4), pages 461-489, August.
    90. Glosten, Lawrence R, 1994. " Is the Electronic Open Limit Order Book Inevitable?," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 49(4), pages 1127-61, September.
    91. Chakravarty, Sugato & Panchapagesan, Venkatesh & Wood, Robert A., 2005. "Did decimalization hurt institutional investors?," Journal of Financial Markets, Elsevier, vol. 8(4), pages 400-420, November.
    92. Easley, David, et al, 1996. " Liquidity, Information, and Infrequently Traded Stocks," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 51(4), pages 1405-36, September.
    93. Alex Frino & David Johnstone & Hui Zheng, 2010. "Anonymity, Stealth Trading, and the Information Content of Broker Identity," The Financial Review, Eastern Finance Association, vol. 45(3), pages 501-522, 08.
    94. Bae, Kee-Hong & Jang, Hasung & Park, Kyung Suh, 2003. "Traders' choice between limit and market orders: evidence from NYSE stocks," Journal of Financial Markets, Elsevier, vol. 6(4), pages 517-538, August.
    95. Karagozoglu, Ahmet K & Martell, Terrence F, 1999. "Changing the Size of a Futures Contract: Liquidity and Microstructure Effects," The Financial Review, Eastern Finance Association, vol. 34(4), pages 75-94, November.
    96. Perotti, Pietro & Rindi, Barbara, 2010. "Market makers as information providers: The natural experiment of STAR," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 17(5), pages 895-917, December.
    97. Scholes, Myron S, 1972. "The Market for Securities: Substitution versus Price Pressure and the Effects of Information on Share Prices," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 45(2), pages 179-211, April.
    98. Allaudeen Hameed & Eric Terry, 1998. "The Effect of Tick Size on Price Clustering and Trading Volume," Journal of Business Finance & Accounting, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 25(7&8), pages 849-867.
    99. Carole Comerton-Forde & Terrence Hendershott & Charles M. Jones & Pamela C. Moulton & Mark S. Seasholes, 2010. "Time Variation in Liquidity: The Role of Market-Maker Inventories and Revenues," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 65(1), pages 295-331, 02.
    100. Alex Frino & Elvis Jarnecic & Andrew Lepone, 2007. "The determinants of the price impact of block trades: further evidence," Abacus, Accounting Foundation, University of Sydney, vol. 43(1), pages 94-106.
    101. Soeren Hvidkjaer, 2008. "Small Trades and the Cross-Section of Stock Returns," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 21(3), pages 1123-1151, May.
    102. Bozcuk, Aslihan & Lasfer, M. Ameziane, 2005. "The Information Content of Institutional Trades on the London Stock Exchange," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 40(03), pages 621-644, September.
    103. Nicolas P. B. Bollen & Tom Smith & Robert E. Whaley, 2003. "Optimal contract design: For whom?," Journal of Futures Markets, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 23(8), pages 719-750, 08.
    104. Christopher Ting, 2006. "Which Daily Price is Less Noisy?," Financial Management, Financial Management Association, vol. 35(3), Autumn.
    105. Panayides, Marios A., 2007. "Affirmative obligations and market making with inventory," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 86(2), pages 513-542, November.
    106. Bessembinder, Hendrik, 2000. "Tick Size, Spreads, and Liquidity: An Analysis of Nasdaq Securities Trading near Ten Dollars," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 9(3), pages 213-239, July.
    107. Lau, Sie Ting & McInish, Thomas H., 1995. "Reducing tick size on the Stock Exchange of Singapore," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 3(4), pages 485-496, December.
    108. Christie, William G & Schultz, Paul H, 1994. " Why Do NASDAQ Market Makers Avoid Odd-Eighth Quotes?," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 49(5), pages 1813-40, December.
    109. Berkowitz, Stephen A & Logue, Dennis E & Noser, Eugene A, Jr, 1988. " The Total Cost of Transactions on the NYSE," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 43(1), pages 97-112, March.
    110. Menkhoff, Lukas & Osler, Carol L. & Schmeling, Maik, 2010. "Limit-order submission strategies under asymmetric information," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(11), pages 2665-2677, November.
    111. Zhu, Mei & Chiarella, Carl & He, Xue-Zhong & Wang, Duo, 2009. "Does the market maker stabilize the market?," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 388(15), pages 3164-3180.
    112. Chung, Kee H. & Chuwonganant, Chairat, 2002. "Tick size and quote revisions on the NYSE," Journal of Financial Markets, Elsevier, vol. 5(4), pages 391-410, October.
    113. Bertsimas, Dimitris & Lo, Andrew W., 1998. "Optimal control of execution costs," Journal of Financial Markets, Elsevier, vol. 1(1), pages 1-50, April.
    114. Michael A. Goldstein & Kenneth A. Kavajecz, . "Eighths, Sixteenths and Market Depth: Changes in Tick Size and Liquidity Provision on the NYSE," Rodney L. White Center for Financial Research Working Papers 14-98, Wharton School Rodney L. White Center for Financial Research.
    115. Ahn, Hee-Joon & Cao, Charles Q. & Choe, Hyuk, 1996. "Tick Size, Spread, and Volume," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 5(1), pages 2-22, January.
    116. Aitken, Michael & Frino, Alex, 1996. "The accuracy of the tick test: Evidence from the Australian stock exchange," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 20(10), pages 1715-1729, December.
    117. Berkman, Henk & Brailsford, Tim & Frino, Alex, 2005. "A note on execution costs for stock index futures: Information versus liquidity effects," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 29(3), pages 565-577, March.
    118. Petersen, Mitchell A. & Fialkowski, David, 1994. "Posted versus effective spreads *1: Good prices or bad quotes?," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 35(3), pages 269-292, June.
    119. David C. Porter & Daniel G. Weaver, 1997. "Tick Size and Market Quality," Financial Management, Financial Management Association, vol. 26(4), Winter.
    120. Ke, Mei-Chu & Jiang, Ching-Hai & Huang, Yen-Sheng, 2004. "The impact of tick size on intraday stock price behavior: evidence from the Taiwan Stock Exchange," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 12(1), pages 19-39, January.
    121. Ho, Thomas S Y & Stoll, Hans R, 1983. " The Dynamics of Dealer Markets under Competition," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 38(4), pages 1053-74, September.
    122. Lawrence R. Glosten & Paul R. Milgrom, 1983. "Bid, Ask and Transaction Prices in a Specialist Market with Heterogeneously Informed Traders," Discussion Papers 570, Northwestern University, Center for Mathematical Studies in Economics and Management Science.
    123. Frino, Alex & Jarnecic, Elvis & Lepone, Andrew, 2009. "An event time study of the price reaction to large retail trades," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 49(2), pages 617-632, May.
    124. Chan, Louis K. C. & Lakonishok, Josef, 1993. "Institutional trades and intraday stock price behavior," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(2), pages 173-199, April.
    125. Alex Frino & Johan Bjursell & George H. K. Wang & Andrew Lepone, 2008. "Large trades and intraday futures price behavior," Journal of Futures Markets, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 28(12), pages 1147-1181, December.
    126. Anshuman, V Ravi & Kalay, Avner, 1998. "Market Making with Discrete Prices," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 11(1), pages 81-109.
    127. Jose Montalvo, 2003. "Liquidity and market makers: a pseudo-experimental analysis with ultrahigh frequency data," The European Journal of Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 9(4), pages 358-378.
    128. Robin K. Chou & George H. K. Wang, 2006. "Transaction tax and market quality of the Taiwan stock index futures," Journal of Futures Markets, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 26(12), pages 1195-1216, December.
    129. Glosten, Lawrence R. & Harris, Lawrence E., 1988. "Estimating the components of the bid/ask spread," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 21(1), pages 123-142, May.
    130. Duong, Huu Nhan & Kalev, Petko S. & Krishnamurti, Chandrasekhar, 2009. "Order aggressiveness of institutional and individual investors," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 17(5), pages 533-546, November.
    131. Ellul, Andrew & Holden, Craig W. & Jain, Pankaj & Jennings, Robert, 2007. "Order dynamics: Recent evidence from the NYSE," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 14(5), pages 636-661, December.
    132. Alexander Kurov, 2008. "Tick size reduction, execution costs, and informational efficiency in the regular and E‐mini Nasdaq‐100 index futures markets," Journal of Futures Markets, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 28(9), pages 871-888, 09.
    133. Shen, Pu & Starr, Ross M., 2002. "Market-makers' supply and pricing of financial market liquidity," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 76(1), pages 53-58, June.
    134. Juhani T. Linnainmaa, 2010. "Do Limit Orders Alter Inferences about Investor Performance and Behavior?," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 65(4), pages 1473-1506, 08.
    135. Alexander Kurov & Tatyana Zabotina, 2005. "Is it time to reduce the minimum tick sizes of the E‐mini futures?," Journal of Futures Markets, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 25(1), pages 79-104, 01.
    136. Bacidore, Jeffrey & Battalio, Robert H. & Jennings, Robert H., 2003. "Order submission strategies, liquidity supply, and trading in pennies on the New York Stock Exchange," Journal of Financial Markets, Elsevier, vol. 6(3), pages 337-362, May.
    137. Yiuman Tse & Tatyana Zabotina, 2004. "Do designated market makers improve liquidity in open‐outcry futures markets?," Journal of Futures Markets, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 24(5), pages 479-502, 05.
    138. Chordia, Tarun & Roll, Richard & Subrahmanyam, Avanidhar, 2000. "Commonality in liquidity," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 56(1), pages 3-28, April.
    139. Chiraphol N. Chiyachantana & Pankaj K. Jain & Christine Jiang & Robert A. Wood, 2004. "International Evidence on Institutional Trading Behavior and Price Impact," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 59(2), pages 869-898, 04.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

    When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:uts:finphd:4. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Duncan Ford)

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

    If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.