Agricultural Contracting Update: Contracts in 2008
Marketing and production contracts covered 39 percent of the value of U.S. agricultural production in 2008, up from 36 percent in 2001, and a substantial increase over 28 percent in 1991 and 11 percent in 1969. However, aggregate contract use has stabilized in recent years and no longer suggests a strong trend. Contracts between farmers and their buyers are reached prior to harvest (or before the completion stage for livestock)and govern the terms under which products are transferred from the farm. Contracts are far more likely to be used on large farms than on small farms, and they form one element in a package of risk management tools available to farmers. Production contracts are used widely in livestock production, while marketing contracts are important to the production of many crops.
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- Dimitri, Carolyn, 2002. "Contract Evolution And Institutional Innovation: Marketing Pacific-Grown Apples From 1890 To 1930," The Journal of Economic History, Cambridge University Press, vol. 62(01), pages 189-212, March.
- MacDonald, James M. & McBride, William D., 2009. "The Transformation of U.S. Livestock Agriculture: Scale, Efficiency, and Risks," Economic Information Bulletin 58311, United States Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service.
- Rachael Goodhue & Dale Heien & Hyunok Lee & Daniel Sumner, 2003.
"Contracts and Quality in the California Winegrape Industry,"
Review of Industrial Organization,
Springer, vol. 23(3), pages 267-282, December.
- Rachael E. Goodhue & Dale M. Heien & Hyunok Lee & Daniel A. Sumner, 2003. "Contracts and Quality in the California Winegrape Industry," Review of Industrial Organization, Springer, vol. 23(3_4), pages 267-282, December.
- Shawn Cole & Barrett Kirwan, 2009. "Between the Corporation and the Household: Commodity Prices, Risk Management, and Agricultural Production in the United States," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 91(5), pages 1243-1249.
- Key, Nigel D., 2010.
"Production Contracts and Farm Business Growth and Survival,"
2010 Annual Meeting, July 25-27, 2010, Denver, Colorado
61022, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
- Key, Nigel D., 2013. "Production Contracts and Farm Business Growth and Survival," Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics, Southern Agricultural Economics Association, vol. 45(02), May.
- Sandeep Mohapatra & Rachael E. Goodhue & Colin A. Carter & James A. Chalfant, 2010. "Effects of Forward Sales on Spot Markets: Pre-commitment Sales and Prices for Fresh Strawberries," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 92(1), pages 152-163.
- Key, Nigel D., 2004. "Agricultural Contracting and the Scale of Production," Agricultural and Resource Economics Review, Northeastern Agricultural and Resource Economics Association, vol. 33(2), October.
- Harwood, Joy L. & Heifner, Richard G. & Coble, Keith H. & Perry, Janet E. & Somwaru, Agapi, 1999. "Managing Risk in Farming: Concepts, Research, and Analysis," Agricultural Economics Reports 34081, United States Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service.
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