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Competition, Regulation and Privatisation of Electricity Generation in Developing Countries: Does the Sequencing of the Reforms Matter?


  • Zhang, Yingang
  • Parker, David
  • Kirkpatrick, Colin


Recent years have seen countries introducing reform of their utility industries with a view to promoting private ownership and competition. This paper studies the effect of the sequencing of privatisation, competition and regulation reforms in electricity generation using data from 25 developing countries for the period 1985 to 2001. A fixed effects panel data model is used. The study finds that establishing an independent regulatory authority and introducing competition before privatisation is correlated with higher electricity generation, higher generation capacity and, in the case of the sequence of competition before privatisation, improved capital utilisation.

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  • Zhang, Yingang & Parker, David & Kirkpatrick, Colin, 2004. "Competition, Regulation and Privatisation of Electricity Generation in Developing Countries: Does the Sequencing of the Reforms Matter?," Centre on Regulation and Competition (CRC) Working papers 30599, University of Manchester, Institute for Development Policy and Management (IDPM).
  • Handle: RePEc:ags:idpmcr:30599

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    Cited by:

    1. Yin-Fang Zhang & David Parker & Colin Kirkpatrick, 2008. "Electricity sector reform in developing countries: an econometric assessment of the effects of privatization, competition and regulation," Journal of Regulatory Economics, Springer, vol. 33(2), pages 159-178, April.
    2. Erdogdu, Erkan, 2011. "The impact of power market reforms on electricity price-cost margins and cross-subsidy levels: A cross country panel data analysis," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(3), pages 1080-1092, March.
    3. Ba, Lika & Gasmi, Farid & Noumba Um, Paul, 2010. "Is the level of financial sector development a key determinant of private investment in the power sector ?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5373, The World Bank.
    4. Tooraj Jamasb & Rabindra Nepal & Govinda Timilsina & Michael Toman, 2014. "Energy Sector Reform, Economic Efficiency and Poverty Reduction," Discussion Papers Series 529, School of Economics, University of Queensland, Australia.
    5. Parker, David & Kirkpatrick, Colin & Figueira-Theodorakopoulou, Catarina, 2008. "Infrastructure regulation and poverty reduction in developing countries: A review of the evidence and a research agenda," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 48(2), pages 177-188, May.
    6. David Parker & Colin Kirkpatrick, 2005. "Privatisation in Developing Countries: A Review of the Evidence and the Policy Lessons," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 41(4), pages 513-541.
    7. Bastianin, Andrea & Castelnovo, Paolo & Florio, Massimo, 2017. "The empirics of regulatory reforms proxied by categorical variables: recent findings and methodological issues," MPRA Paper 78256, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    8. Antonio Estache & Caroline Philippe, 2012. "The Impact of Private Participation in Infrastructure in Developing Countries: Taking Stock of about 20 Years of Experience," Working Papers ECARES ECARES 2012-043, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
    9. Howard, Philip N. & Mazaheri, Nimah, 2009. "Telecommunications Reform, Internet Use and Mobile Phone Adoption in the Developing World," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 37(7), pages 1159-1169, July.
    10. Lestage, Romain & Flacher, David & Kim, Yeonbae & Kim, Jihwan & Kim, Yunhee, 2013. "Competition and investment in telecommunications: Does competition have the same impact on investment by private and state-owned firms?," Information Economics and Policy, Elsevier, vol. 25(1), pages 41-50.
    11. Aitor Ciarreta, 2012. "Cartels and regulation: effects on prices and real sales in sweden (1976–1990)," European Journal of Law and Economics, Springer, vol. 34(1), pages 127-146, August.
    12. Ornella Tarola, 2010. "Public Utilities: Privatization without Regulation," Czech Economic Review, Charles University Prague, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute of Economic Studies, vol. 4(1), pages 062-078, March.
    13. Matthias Finger & Rolf W. Künneke (ed.), 2011. "International Handbook of Network Industries," Books, Edward Elgar Publishing, number 12961.
    14. Laura Valderrama, 2010. "Privatization Under Regulatory Lobbying," NCID Working Papers 04/2010, Navarra Center for International Development, University of Navarra.
    15. Filippo Belloc & Antonio Nicita & Pier Luigi Parcu, 2011. "Deregulating Telecommunications in Europe: Timing, Path-Dependency, and Institutional Complementarities," RSCAS Working Papers 2011/47, European University Institute.
    16. Jamasb,Tooraj & Nepal,Rabindra & Timilsina,Govinda R., 2015. "A quarter century effort yet to come of age : a survey of power sector reforms in developing countries," Policy Research Working Paper Series 7330, The World Bank.
    17. Catarina Figueira & David Parker, 2011. "Infrastructure Liberalization: Challenges to the New Economic Paradigm in the Context of Developing Countries," Chapters,in: International Handbook of Network Industries, chapter 27 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    18. Polemis, Michael L., 2016. "New evidence on the impact of structural reforms on electricity sector performance," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 92(C), pages 420-431.
    19. Estache, Antonio & Goicoechea, Ana & Trujillo, Lourdes, 2009. "Utilities reforms and corruption in developing countries," Utilities Policy, Elsevier, vol. 17(2), pages 191-202, June.
    20. Nasrollahi Shahri, Nima, 2011. "Power market reforms and privatization of the electricity industry in the Iranian energy sector; an uphill struggle?," MPRA Paper 28047, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    21. Cambini, Carlo & Franzi, Donata, 2013. "Independent regulatory agencies and rules harmonization for the electricity sector and renewables in the Mediterranean region," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 60(C), pages 179-191.
    22. Morgan Bazilian & Patrick Nussbaumer & Hans-Holger Rogner & Abeeku Brew-Hammond & Vivien Foster & Shonali Pachauri & Eric Williams & Mark Howells & Philippe Niyongabo & Lawrence Musaba & Brian Ó Galla, 2011. "Energy Access Scenarios to 2030 for the Power Sector in Sub-Saharan Africa," Working Papers 2011.68, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.
    23. Sylvia Gaylord & Kathleen J. Hancock, 2013. "Developing world: national energy strategies," Chapters,in: International Handbook of Energy Security, chapter 10, pages 206-236 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    24. Erdogdu, Erkan, 2014. "Investment, security of supply and sustainability in the aftermath of three decades of power sector reform," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 31(C), pages 1-8.
    25. Antonio Estache & L. Wren-Lewis, 2008. "Towards a Theory of Regulation for Developing Countries: Following Laffont's Lead," Working Papers ECARES 2008_018, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.

    More about this item


    privatisation; competition; regulation; developing economies; economic performance.; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; L33; L43; L44; L50; 012; O38; O50;

    JEL classification:

    • L33 - Industrial Organization - - Nonprofit Organizations and Public Enterprise - - - Comparison of Public and Private Enterprise and Nonprofit Institutions; Privatization; Contracting Out
    • L43 - Industrial Organization - - Antitrust Issues and Policies - - - Legal Monopolies and Regulation or Deregulation
    • L44 - Industrial Organization - - Antitrust Issues and Policies - - - Antitrust Policy and Public Enterprise, Nonprofit Institutions, and Professional Organizations
    • L50 - Industrial Organization - - Regulation and Industrial Policy - - - General
    • O38 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Government Policy


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