IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/ags/iaae15/212014.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Bt cotton and employment effects for female agricultural laborers in Pakistan: An application of double-hurdle model

Author

Listed:
  • Kouser, Shahzad
  • Qaim, Matin
  • Abedullah

Abstract

The literature dealing with impacts of Bt cotton is growing. Nevertheless, the question remains about how this technology can contribute to employment generation of rural poor. Bt-related yield benefit may intensify production and enhance labor demand for harvesting. Building on farm survey data of 352 cotton farmers in the South Punjab of Pakistan and using double-hurdle model, Bt employments effects are analyzed. Estimates show that Bt adoption has increased the probability and demand for hired labor by 6% and 17%, respectively. Cotton picking is labor intensive and female dominated activity in Pakistan. Labor disaggregation by gender enunciates the employment effects of Bt cotton for rural women, who belong to the neglected group of the society. Hence, Bt technology can play a vital role to poverty alleviation if seed quality and credit constraints are properly addressed.

Suggested Citation

  • Kouser, Shahzad & Qaim, Matin & Abedullah, 2015. "Bt cotton and employment effects for female agricultural laborers in Pakistan: An application of double-hurdle model," 2015 Conference, August 9-14, 2015, Milan, Italy 212014, International Association of Agricultural Economists.
  • Handle: RePEc:ags:iaae15:212014
    DOI: 10.22004/ag.econ.212014
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://ageconsearch.umn.edu/record/212014/files/Kouser-Bt%20cotton%20and%20employment%20effects%20for%20female%20agricultural%20laborers-599.pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    File URL: https://libkey.io/10.22004/ag.econ.212014?utm_source=ideas
    LibKey link: if access is restricted and if your library uses this service, LibKey will redirect you to where you can use your library subscription to access this item
    ---><---

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Kouser, Shahzad & Qaim, Matin, 2011. "Impact of Bt cotton on pesticide poisoning in smallholder agriculture: A panel data analysis," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 70(11), pages 2105-2113, September.
    2. Vanloqueren, Gaëtan & Baret, Philippe V., 2009. "How agricultural research systems shape a technological regime that develops genetic engineering but locks out agroecological innovations," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(6), pages 971-983, July.
    3. Miet Maertens & Johan F.M. Swinnen, 2012. "Gender and Modern Supply Chains in Developing Countries," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 48(10), pages 1412-1430, October.
    4. Feder, Gershon & Just, Richard E & Zilberman, David, 1985. "Adoption of Agricultural Innovations in Developing Countries: A Survey," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 33(2), pages 255-298, January.
    5. Thirtle, Colin & Beyers, Lindie & Ismael, Yousouf & Piesse, Jenifer, 2003. "Can GM-Technologies Help the Poor? The Impact of Bt Cotton in Makhathini Flats, KwaZulu-Natal," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 31(4), pages 717-732, April.
    6. Pray, Carl & Ma, Danmeng & Huang, Jikun & Qiao, Fangbin, 2001. "Impact of Bt Cotton in China," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 29(5), pages 813-825, May.
    7. Quisumbing, Agnes R. & McClafferty, Bonnie, 2006. "Using gender research in development: food security in practice," Food security in practice technical guide series 2, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    8. Sadoulet, Elisabeth & de Janvry, Alain & Benjamin, Catherine, 1996. "Household Behavior With Imperfect Labor Markets," CUDARE Working Papers 25044, University of California, Berkeley, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics.
    9. Zhang, Linxiu & de Brauw, Alan & Rozelle, Scott, 2004. "China's rural labor market development and its gender implications," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 15(2), pages 230-247.
    10. Huang, Jikun & Hu, Ruifa & Rozelle, Scott & Qiao, Fangbin & Pray, Carl E., 2002. "Transgenic varieties and productivity of smallholder cotton farmers in China," Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society, vol. 46(3), pages 1-21.
    11. Qaim, Matin & De Janvry, Alain, 2005. "Bt cotton and pesticide use in Argentina: economic and environmental effects," Environment and Development Economics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 10(2), pages 179-200, May.
    12. Nazli, Hina & Orden, David & Sarker, Rakhal & Meilke, Karl, 2012. "Bt Cotton adoption and wellbeing of farmers in Pakistan:," PSSP working papers 4, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    13. Reardon, Thomas, 1997. "Using evidence of household income diversification to inform study of the rural nonfarm labor market in Africa," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 25(5), pages 735-747, May.
    14. Stephan Brosig & Thomas Glauben & Thomas Herzfeld & Scott Rozelle & Xiaobing Wang, 2007. "The dynamics of Chinese rural households' participation in labor markets," Agricultural Economics, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 37(2‐3), pages 167-178, September.
    15. Akhter Ali & Awudu Abdulai, 2010. "The Adoption of Genetically Modified Cotton and Poverty Reduction in Pakistan," Journal of Agricultural Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 61(1), pages 175-192, February.
    16. Jayasuriya, S. K. & Shand, R. T., 1986. "Technical change and labor absorption in Asian agriculture: Some emerging trends," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 14(3), pages 415-428, March.
    17. Noltze, Martin & Schwarze, Stefan & Qaim, Matin, 2012. "Understanding the adoption of system technologies in smallholder agriculture: The system of rice intensification (SRI) in Timor Leste," Agricultural Systems, Elsevier, vol. 108(C), pages 64-73.
    18. Arjunan Subramanian & Matin Qaim, 2010. "The Impact of Bt Cotton on Poor Households in Rural India," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 46(2), pages 295-311.
    19. Yoko Kijima & Tomoya Matsumoto & Takashi Yamano, 2006. "Nonfarm employment, agricultural shocks, and poverty dynamics: evidence from rural Uganda," Agricultural Economics, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 35(s3), pages 459-467, November.
    20. Stefania Lovo, 2012. "Market imperfections, liquidity, and farm household labor allocation: the case of rural South Africa," Agricultural Economics, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 43(4), pages 417-428, July.
    21. Matin Qaim & Arjunan Subramanian & Gopal Naik & David Zilberman, 2006. "Adoption of Bt Cotton and Impact Variability: Insights from India," Review of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 28(1), pages 48-58.
    22. Abedullah & Shahzad Kouser & Matin Qaim, 2015. "Bt Cotton, Pesticide Use and Environmental Efficiency in Pakistan," Journal of Agricultural Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 66(1), pages 66-86, February.
    23. Smith, Richard J & Blundell, Richard W, 1986. "An Exogeneity Test for a Simultaneous Equation Tobit Model with an Application to Labor Supply," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 54(3), pages 679-685, May.
    24. Bekele A. Shiferaw & Tewodros A. Kebede & Liang You, 2008. "Technology adoption under seed access constraints and the economic impacts of improved pigeonpea varieties in Tanzania," Agricultural Economics, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 39(3), pages 309-323, November.
    25. Eswaran, Mukesh & Kotwal, Ashok, 1986. "Access to Capital and Agrarian Production Organisation," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 96(382), pages 482-498, June.
    26. Guillaume Gruere & Debdatta Sengupta, 2011. "Bt Cotton and Farmer Suicides in India: An Evidence-based Assessment," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 47(2), pages 316-337.
    27. Jones, Andrew M, 1989. "A Double-Hurdle Model of Cigarette Consumption," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 4(1), pages 23-39, Jan.-Mar..
    28. William J. Burke, 2009. "Fitting and interpreting Cragg's tobit alternative using Stata," Stata Journal, StataCorp LP, vol. 9(4), pages 584-592, December.
    29. Sharmistha Self & Richard Grabowski, 2007. "Economic development and the role of agricultural technology," Agricultural Economics, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 36(3), pages 395-404, May.
    30. Rivers, Douglas & Vuong, Quang H., 1988. "Limited information estimators and exogeneity tests for simultaneous probit models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 39(3), pages 347-366, November.
    31. Richard Bennett & Uma Kambhampati & Stephen Morse & Yousouf Ismael, 2006. "Farm-Level Economic Performance of Genetically Modified Cotton in Maharashtra, India," Review of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 28(1), pages 59-71.
    32. Stone, Glenn Davis, 2011. "Field versus Farm in Warangal: Bt Cotton, Higher Yields, and Larger Questions," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 39(3), pages 387-398, March.
    33. Bhavani Shankar & Colin Thirtle, 2005. "Pesticide Productivity and Transgenic Cotton Technology: The South African Smallholder Case," Journal of Agricultural Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 56(1), pages 97-116, March.
    34. Rao, Elizaphan J.O. & Qaim, Matin, 2013. "Supermarkets and agricultural labor demand in Kenya: A gendered perspective," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(C), pages 165-176.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Nolte, Kerstin & Ostermeier, Martin, 2017. "Labour Market Effects of Large-Scale Agricultural Investment: Conceptual Considerations and Estimated Employment Effects," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 98(C), pages 430-446.
    2. Connor, Lawson & Rejesus, Roderick M., "undated". "Labor Savings and Time Allocation Shifts from the Adoption of Pesticidal GM Crops in the Philippines," 2017 Annual Meeting, July 30-August 1, Chicago, Illinois 259967, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
    3. Hefferon, Kathleen L. & Herring, Ronald J., 2017. "The End of the GMO? Genome Editing, Gene Drives and New Frontiers of Plant Technology," Review of Agrarian Studies, Foundation for Agrarian Studies, vol. 7(1), July.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Rao, Elizaphan J.O. & Qaim, Matin, 2013. "Supermarkets and agricultural labor demand in Kenya: A gendered perspective," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(C), pages 165-176.
    2. Chellattan Veettil, Prakashan & Krishna, Vijesh V. & Qaim, Matin, 2014. "Bt Cotton and Ecosystem Impacts of Pesticide Reductions," GlobalFood Discussion Papers 180977, Georg-August-Universitaet Goettingen, GlobalFood, Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Development.
    3. Kouser, Shahzad & Qaim, Matin, 2011. "Impact of Bt cotton on pesticide poisoning in smallholder agriculture: A panel data analysis," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 70(11), pages 2105-2113, September.
    4. Fangbin Qiao & Jikun Huang & Caiping Zhang, 2016. "The Sustainability of the Farm-level Impact of Bt Cotton in China," Journal of Agricultural Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 67(3), pages 602-618, September.
    5. Rao, Elizaphan J.O. & Qaim, Matin, 2011. "The supermarket revolution and impacts on agricultural labor markets: Empirical evidence from Kenya," GlobalFood Discussion Papers 107745, Georg-August-Universitaet Goettingen, GlobalFood, Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Development.
    6. Xingliang Ma & Melinda Smale & David J. Spielman & Patricia Zambrano & Hina Nazli & Fatima Zaidi, 2017. "A Question of Integrity: Variants of Bt Cotton, Pesticides and Productivity in Pakistan," Journal of Agricultural Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 68(2), pages 366-385, June.
    7. Benali, Marwan & Brümmer, Bernhard & Afari-Sefa, Victor, 2017. "Small producer participation in export vegetable supply chains and household labour allocation in Tanzania: an age-disaggregated approach," GlobalFood Discussion Papers 257513, Georg-August-Universitaet Goettingen, GlobalFood, Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Development.
    8. Krishna, Vijesh V. & Qaim, Matin, 2012. "Bt cotton and sustainability of pesticide reductions in India," Agricultural Systems, Elsevier, vol. 107(C), pages 47-55.
    9. Suntornpithug, Pasu & Kalaitzandonakes, Nicholas G., 2009. "Understanding the Adoption of Cotton Biotechnologies in the US: Firm Level Evidence," Agricultural Economics Review, Greek Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 10(1), pages 1-17.
    10. Ramasundaram, P. & Suresh, A. & Samuel, Josily & Wankhade, Shwetal, 2014. "Welfare Gains from Application of First Generation Biotechnology in Indian Agriculture: The Case of Bt Cotton," Agricultural Economics Research Review, Agricultural Economics Research Association (India), vol. 27(1).
    11. Mutuc, Maria Erlinda M. & Rejesus, Roderick M. & Pan, Suwen & Yorobe, Jose M., 2012. "Impact Assessment of Bt Corn Adoption in the Philippines," Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 44(1), pages 117-135, February.
    12. Qiao, Fangbin, 2015. "Fifteen Years of Bt Cotton in China: The Economic Impact and its Dynamics," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 70(C), pages 177-185.
    13. Subramanian, Arjunan & Qaim, Matin, 2009. "Rural Poverty and Employment Effects of Bt Cotton in India," 2009 Conference, August 16-22, 2009, Beijing, China 50555, International Association of Agricultural Economists.
    14. Thirtle, Colin G. & Piesse, Jenifer & Gouse, Marnus, 2005. "Agricultural technology, productivity and employment: Policies for poverty reduction," Agrekon, Agricultural Economics Association of South Africa (AEASA), vol. 44(1), pages 1-23, March.
    15. Subramanian, Arjunan & Qaim, Matin, 2009. "Village-wide Effects of Agricultural Biotechnology: The Case of Bt Cotton in India," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 37(1), pages 256-267, January.
    16. Kouser, Shahzad & Qaim, Matin, 2012. "Valuing financial, health and environmental benefits of Bt cotton in Pakistan," 2012 Conference, August 18-24, 2012, Foz do Iguacu, Brazil 126544, International Association of Agricultural Economists.
    17. Marwan Benali & Bernhard Brümmer & Victor Afari‐Sefa, 2018. "Smallholder participation in vegetable exports and age‐disaggregated labor allocation in Northern Tanzania," Agricultural Economics, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 49(5), pages 549-562, September.
    18. Hazarika, Bhabesh & Bezbaruah, Madhurjya Prashad & Goswami, Kishor, 2016. "Adoption of modern weaving technology in the handloom micro-enterprises in Assam: A Double Hurdle approach," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 102(C), pages 344-356.
    19. Liu, Elaine M. & Huang, JiKun, 2013. "Risk preferences and pesticide use by cotton farmers in China," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 103(C), pages 202-215.
    20. Nazli, Hina & Orden, David & Sarker, Rakhal & Meilke, Karl D., 2012. "Bt Cotton Adoption and Wellbeing of Farmers in Pakistan," 2012 Conference, August 18-24, 2012, Foz do Iguacu, Brazil 126172, International Association of Agricultural Economists.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Crop Production/Industries; Labor and Human Capital;

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ags:iaae15:212014. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/iaaeeea.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: AgEcon Search (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/iaaeeea.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.