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Individual and context factors determine gender-specific behaviour: the case of school milk in Germany


  • Salamon, Petra
  • Weible, Daniela
  • Buergelt, Doreen
  • Christoph, Inken B.
  • Peter, Guenter


A German federal research was established to analyse determinants on school milk demand. Among those, individual factors, like children’s eating habits, attitudes, preferences and socio-economic variables were considered but also contextual factors like attitudes and habits of class teachers and school variables were regarded; and more, price effects on demand were derived via a price experiment. As girls order significantly less school milk than boys this paper aims to analysis gender-specific decisions. In the analysis, a database is used in which individual order information are merged with survey results concerning pupils, parents, class teachers, school principals and school milk managers of the sampled schools. A multilevel analysis is applied, because included explanatory variables of gender-specific school milk orders can be assigned to different groups (individual, class, school, price phase) in which the independence of variable distributions may be hampered; whereas equations are established as ordinary logistic function. Estimates for both genders comprise individual factors affecting positively the school milk orders like e.g., the provision of school milk free of charge, or when pupils think that `milk tastes good´ and contextual factors such as their class teachers’ involvement. Gender-specific distinctions cover e.g., the fact that male pupils have a higher probability to order school milk and react to price incentives. Concerning the context variables, boys react to teachers and principal attitudes. In contrast, with girls prices have a very limited impact, but their parents and teachers are regarded as role models. Girls prefer more choices in product differentiation. These results indicate gender-specific programs integrating their family and teachers, and a wider range of product choices.

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  • Salamon, Petra & Weible, Daniela & Buergelt, Doreen & Christoph, Inken B. & Peter, Guenter, 2012. "Individual and context factors determine gender-specific behaviour: the case of school milk in Germany," 2012 AAEA/EAAE Food Environment Symposium, May 30-31, Boston, MA 123532, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
  • Handle: RePEc:ags:aaeafe:123532

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Germán Rodríguez & Noreen Goldman, 2001. "Improved estimation procedures for multilevel models with binary response: a case-study," Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series A, Royal Statistical Society, vol. 164(2), pages 339-355.
    2. Sophia Rabe-Hesketh & Anders Skrondal, 2012. "Multilevel and Longitudinal Modeling Using Stata, 3rd Edition," Stata Press books, StataCorp LP, edition 3, number mimus2, December.
    3. De Devitiis, Biagia & De Luca, Anna Irene & Maietta, Ornella Wanda, 2011. "Gender Differences in Pro-social Behaviour: The Case of Fair-trade Food Consumers," 2011 International Congress, August 30-September 2, 2011, Zurich, Switzerland 114372, European Association of Agricultural Economists.
    4. Browne, A. W. & Harris, P. J. C. & Hofny-Collins, A. H. & Pasiecznik, N. & Wallace, R. R., 2000. "Organic production and ethical trade: definition, practice and links," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 25(1), pages 69-89, February.
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    gender differences; multilevel analysis; school milk; Demand and Price Analysis; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety;

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