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How do political, individual and contextual factors affect school milk demand? Empirical evidence from primary schools in Germany


  • Weible, Daniela
  • Salamon, Petra
  • Christoph-Schulz, Inken B.
  • Peter, Guenter


Despite the subsidies provided for school milk within the European School Milk Scheme, consumption has declined steadily in Germany. Thus, a federal research project was established to analyze factors that influence the demand for school milk. The results should form a basis to improve future school milk policy. To identify the factors affecting the decisions by individual pupils to order school milk and to quantify the impact of each factor, politically induced factors, individual and context factors were considered. Price effects and the associated policy issues were derived via a price experiment in selected German primary schools, while information on weekly orders for school milk was collected at the individual level. Detailed information on the eating habits, preferences and tastes, attitudes, socio-economic circumstances and characteristics of the persons involved was obtained by administering various surveys. The respondents examined in the study included pupils, the pupils’ parents, class teachers, school milk managers (primarily janitors) and school principals.

Suggested Citation

  • Weible, Daniela & Salamon, Petra & Christoph-Schulz, Inken B. & Peter, Guenter, 2013. "How do political, individual and contextual factors affect school milk demand? Empirical evidence from primary schools in Germany," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 43(C), pages 148-158.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:jfpoli:v:43:y:2013:i:c:p:148-158
    DOI: 10.1016/j.foodpol.2013.08.015

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Kristina Shampan'er & Dan Ariely, 2006. "How small is zero price? : the true value of free products," Working Papers 06-16, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston.
    2. Germán Rodríguez & Noreen Goldman, 2001. "Improved estimation procedures for multilevel models with binary response: a case-study," Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series A, Royal Statistical Society, vol. 164(2), pages 339-355.
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    Cited by:

    1. Maietta, Ornella Wanda & Gorgitano, Maria Teresa, 2016. "School meals and pupil satisfaction. Evidence from Italian primary schools," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 62(C), pages 41-55.


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