Limited Food Access as an Equilibrium Outcome: An Empirical Analysis
Lack of access to nutritious and affordable food has become an important public policy issue in the U.S.: various interest groups are seeking to reverse a trend whereby certain areas lack larger, full-service grocery stores that provide “higher” quality foods. Based on game-theoretic findings suggesting that lack of food access can be an equilibrium outcome, we specify a model relating access to higher quality food stores to a vector of supply and demand factors, using seven years of county-level data for the contiguous U.S., and a constrained generalized ordered logit estimator. Our results suggest that demand side factors, especially market size (total income and SNAP funds) play an important role in determining food access, and that large food stores avoid areas with higher poverty. Some cost determinants, such as the ratio of building costs to the total site cost, home price index (for counties with higher poverty rates than the average) and ease of recruiting labor, affect the probability of observing areas with no access. A more favorable business tax regime has no impact on access, while better transportation infrastructure reduces rather than improves food access. Our results shed new light on the determinants of food access in addition to highlighting what policy can and cannot accomplish to improve food access.
|Date of creation:||2012|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: |
Phone: (414) 918-3190
Fax: (414) 276-3349
Web page: http://www.aaea.orgEmail:
More information through EDIRC
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Panle Jia, 2008. "What Happens When Wal-Mart Comes to Town: An Empirical Analysis of the Discount Retailing Industry," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 76(6), pages 1263-1316, November.
- Asplund, Marcus & Sandin, Rickard, 1999. "The Number of Firms and Production Capacity in Relation to Market Size," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 47(1), pages 69-85, March.
- King, Robert P. & Leibtag, Ephraim S. & Behl, Ajay S., 2004.
"Supermarket Characteristics And Operating Costs In Low-Income Areas,"
2004 Annual meeting, August 1-4, Denver, CO
20361, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
- King, Robert P. & Leibtag, Ephraim S. & Behl, Ajay S., 2004. "Supermarket Characteristics And Operating Costs In Low-Income Areas," Agricultural Economics Reports 34003, United States Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service.
- Davis, Morris A. & Heathcote, Jonathan, 2007.
"The price and quantity of residential land in the United States,"
Journal of Monetary Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 54(8), pages 2595-2620, November.
- Jonathan Heathcote & Morris Davis, 2004. "The Price and Quantity of Residential Land in the United States," 2004 Meeting Papers 32, Society for Economic Dynamics.
- Morris A. Davis & Jonathan Heathcote, 2004. "The price and quantity of residential land in the United States," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2004-37, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
- Davis, Morris & Heathcote, Jonathan, 2005. "The Price and Quantity of Residential Land in the United States," CEPR Discussion Papers 5333, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Douglas J. Besharov & Marianne Bitler & Steven J. Haider, 2011. "An economic view of food deserts in the united states," Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 30(1), pages 153-176, December.
- Richard Williams, 2006. "Generalized ordered logit/partial proportional odds models for ordinal dependent variables," Stata Journal, StataCorp LP, vol. 6(1), pages 58-82, March.
- Ellickson, Paul B., 2006. "Quality competition in retailing: A structural analysis," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 24(3), pages 521-540, May.
- Leibtag, Ephraim S. & Kaufman, Phillip R., 2003. "Exploring Food Purchase Behavior of Low-Income Households: How Do They Economize?," Agricultural Information Bulletins 33711, United States Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service.
- Alessandro Bonanno & Rigoberto A. Lopez, 2007.
"Competition Effects of Supermarket Services,"
American Journal of Agricultural Economics,
Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 91(3), pages 555-568.
- Bonanno, Alessandro & Lopez, Rigoberto A., 2007. "Competition Effects of Supermarket Services," 2007 Annual Meeting, July 29-August 1, 2007, Portland, Oregon TN 9833, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
- Bonanno, Alessandro & Lopez, Rigoberto, 2007. "Competition Effects of Supermarket Services," Research Reports 149176, University of Connecticut, Food Marketing Policy Center.
- Alessandro Bonanno & Rigoberto A. Lopez, 2007. "Competition Effects of Supermarket Services," Food Marketing Policy Center Research Reports 094, University of Connecticut, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Charles J. Zwick Center for Food and Resource Policy.
- Timothy J. Richards & Stephen F. Hamilton, 2006. "Rivalry in Price and Variety among Supermarket Retailers," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 88(3), pages 710-726.
- Courtemanche, Charles & Carden, Art, 2011.
"Supersizing supercenters? The impact of Walmart Supercenters on body mass index and obesity,"
Journal of Urban Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 69(2), pages 165-181, March.
- Courtemanche, Charles & Carden, Art, 2008. "Supersizing Supercenters? The Impact of Wal-Mart Supercenters on Body Mass Index and Obesity," Working Papers 09-3, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Department of Economics, revised 29 Jan 2009.
- Ellickson, Paul, 2005. "Does Sutton Apply to Supermarkets?," Working Papers 05-05, Duke University, Department of Economics.
- Bresnahan, Timothy F & Reiss, Peter C, 1991.
"Entry and Competition in Concentrated Markets,"
Journal of Political Economy,
University of Chicago Press, vol. 99(5), pages 977-1009, October.
- Betancourt, Roger R & Gautschi, David A, 1993. "The Outputs of Retail Activities: Concepts, Measurement and Evidence from U.S. Census Data," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 75(2), pages 294-301, May.
- Roger Betancourt & David Gautschi, 1990. "Demand Complementarities, Household Production, and Retail Assortments," Marketing Science, INFORMS, vol. 9(2), pages 146-161.
- Shaked, Avner & Sutton, John, 1987. "Product Differentiation and Industrial Structure," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 36(2), pages 131-46, December.
- Corinna Hawkes, 2008. "Dietary Implications of Supermarket Development: A Global Perspective," Development Policy Review, Overseas Development Institute, vol. 26(6), pages 657-692, November.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ags:aaeafe:123196. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (AgEcon Search)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.