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Assessing the Currency Crises in Turkey


  • Elif Cepni
  • Nezir Kose


This study presents the significance of the currency crises, discusses the related literature and applies a model of economic vulnerability to Turkey during 1985Q2-2004Q2. The common approach in currency crisis literature is to focus on the performance of thresholds for a set of early warning indicators. Following the explanation of "Index of Speculative Pressure" (ISP), Granger causes of the ISP is discussed. The study shows that, current account/ GDP ratio, M2/international reserves ratio, real credit growth and current account/foreign direct investment ratio are Granger causes of the ISP at 1% level. Then by using Vector Auto Regression (VAR) model, the ISP index is forecasted. The study shows that the combination of VAR(1)+VAR(2)+VAR(5) models generate relatively better forecast values than all other single models. Finally the study estimates dynamic probit and logit models by using maximum likelihood to predict currency crises. It shows that logit model gives a better performance than the probit, for a better prediction of the probabilities of the Turkish currency crises. The most important contribution of this study is to show that the logit model has a very high performance in the prediction of Turkish currency crises. It can be used to foresee forthcoming currency crises. Also the forecast of the ISP (as a level) is giving very successful results. It is observed that the ISP and forecasted ISP values are almost moving together or very close to each other.

Suggested Citation

  • Elif Cepni & Nezir Kose, 2006. "Assessing the Currency Crises in Turkey," Central Bank Review, Research and Monetary Policy Department, Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey, vol. 6(1), pages 37-64.
  • Handle: RePEc:tcb:cebare:v:6:y:2006:i:1:p:37-64

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Graciela Kaminsky & Saul Lizondo & Carmen M. Reinhart, 1998. "Leading Indicators of Currency Crises," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 45(1), pages 1-48, March.
    2. Kumar, Mohan & Moorthy, Uma & Perraudin, William, 2003. "Predicting emerging market currency crashes," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 10(4), pages 427-454, September.
    3. Clive Granger & Yongil Jeon, 2004. "Forecasting Performance of Information Criteria with Many Macro Series," Journal of Applied Statistics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 31(10), pages 1227-1240.
    4. Hafer, R. W. & Sheehan, Richard G., 1989. "The sensitivity of VAR forecasts to alternative lag structures," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 5(3), pages 399-408.
    5. Toda, Hiro Y. & Yamamoto, Taku, 1995. "Statistical inference in vector autoregressions with possibly integrated processes," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 66(1-2), pages 225-250.
    6. Sims, Christopher A & Stock, James H & Watson, Mark W, 1990. "Inference in Linear Time Series Models with Some Unit Roots," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 58(1), pages 113-144, January.
    7. Eichengreen, Barry, 2002. "Financial Crises and What to Do About Them," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780199257447, June.
    8. Giancarlo Corsetti & Paolo Pesenti & Nouriel Roubini, 2002. "The Role of Large Players in Currency Crises," NBER Chapters,in: Preventing Currency Crises in Emerging Markets, pages 197-268 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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    Cited by:

    1. Ari, Ali & Dagtekin, Rustem, 2007. "Early Warning Signals of the 2000/2001 Turkish Financial Crisis," MPRA Paper 25857, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    2. Ari, Ali, 2012. "Early warning systems for currency crises: The Turkish case," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 36(3), pages 391-410.

    More about this item


    Currency Crises; Speculative Pressure; Exchange Rates; Financial Crises;

    JEL classification:

    • C25 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Discrete Regression and Qualitative Choice Models; Discrete Regressors; Proportions; Probabilities
    • E44 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Money and Interest Rates - - - Financial Markets and the Macroeconomy
    • F3 - International Economics - - International Finance
    • F47 - International Economics - - Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance - - - Forecasting and Simulation: Models and Applications


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