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Does Labour Mobility Reduce Disparities between Regional Labour Markets in Germany?

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  • Annekatrin Niebuhr
  • Nadia Granato
  • Anette Haas
  • Silke Hamann

Abstract

Niebuhr A., Granato N., Haas A. and Hamann S. Does labour mobility reduce disparities between regional labour markets in Germany?, Regional Studies . Differences in regional labour market conditions are still pronounced in Germany, especially between the Eastern and Western parts. Traditional neoclassical models imply that labour mobility should reduce such disparities. In contrast, models that include externalities or selective migration suggest that regional differences may well increase due to the interregional migration of workers. The impact of labour mobility on regional disparities in Germany between 1995 and 2005 is investigated. Considering migration as well as commuting, effects on regional wages and unemployment are estimated. The results suggest that labour mobility tends to reduce disparities; however, significant effects on unemployment disparities only are found. Niebuhr A., Granato N., Haas A. and Hamann S. 劳动力移动性是否减少了德国劳动力市场的差异?区域研究。 在德国区域劳动力市场间,尤其是东西部之间,仍然存在差异。传统新古典主义模型 表明,劳动力的移动性应该会减少上述差异。而包含了外部性以及选择性移民的模型 指出,区域差异可能会由于区域间移民或工人而增加。我们考察了1995-2005年间劳动力移 动性对于德国区域差异的影响。在考虑移民以及通勤基础上,我们对于区域工资以及 失业的作用都进行了评估。结果表明,劳动力移动性倾向于减少差异,但是却唯独加 剧了失业差异。 区域差异 移民 通勤 德国 Niebuhr A., Granato N., Haas A. et Hamann S. La mobilité du travail, est-ce qu'elle réduit les écarts entre les marchés du travail régionaux en Allemagne. Regional Studies . Les différences des conditions des marchés du travail régionaux restent marqués en Allemagne, surtout à l'est du pays par rapport à l'ouest. Les modèles néoclassiques types laissent supposer que la mobilité du travail devrait réduire de tels écarts. Par contraste, les modèles qui incluent les effets externes ou la migration tendancieuse laissent supposer que les écarts régionaux pourraient se creuser à cause de la migration interrégionale des travailleurs. On examine l'impact de la mobilité du travail sur les écarts régionaux en Allemagne entre 1995 et 2005. En tenant compte de la migration ainsi que des trajets quotidiens pour se rendre au travail, on en évalue l'impact sur les salaires régionaux et le chômage. Les résultats laissent supposer que la mobilité du travail à tendance à réduire les écarts. Cependant, il ne s'avère importants effets que sur les écarts du chômage. Écarts régionaux Migration Trajets quotidiens pour se rendre au travail Allemagne Niebuhr A., Granato N., Haas A. und Hamann S. Verringern sich durch eine Mobilität der Arbeitnehmer die Disparitäten zwischen den regionalen Arbeitsmärkten in Deutschland?, Regional Studies . Die Unterschiede zwischen den Bedingungen auf den regionalen Arbeitsmärkten sind in Deutschland nach wie vor ausgeprägt, insbesondere bei einem Vergleich zwischen Ost und West. Bei den traditionellen neoklassischen Modellen wird implizit vorausgesetzt, dass sich solche Disparitäten durch eine Mobilität der Arbeitnehmer verringern sollte. Demgegenüber lassen Modelle, in denen Externalitäten oder eine selektive Migration berücksichtigt werden, darauf schließen, dass sich die regionalen Unterschiede durch eine interregionale Migration der Arbeitnehmer sogar noch verstärken können. Wir untersuchen die Auswirkung einer Mobilität der Arbeitnehmer auf die regionalen Disparitäten in Deutschland im Zeitraum von 1995 bis 2005. Unter Berücksichtigung von Migration und Berufspendlern werden die Auswirkungen auf das Lohnniveau und die Arbeitslosigkeit in den Regionen geschätzt. Aus den Ergebnissen geht hervor, dass eine Mobilität der Arbeitnehmer die Disparitäten tendenziell verringert; signifikante Auswirkungen werden jedoch nur im Bereich der Disparität der Arbeitslosigkeit festgestellt. Regionale Disparitäten Migration Berufspendlerverkehr Deut schland Niebuhr A., Granato N., Haas A. y Hamann S. ¿Reduce la movilidad laboral las desigualdades entre los mercados laborales regionales en Alemania?, Regional Studies . Las diferencias entre las condiciones de los mercados laborales regionales son todavía muy pronunciadas en Alemania, especialmente entre el este y el oeste. Con los modelos neoclásicos tradicionales se supone que la movilidad laboral debería reducir tales desigualdades. Sin embargo, los modelos que incluyen factores externos o migración selectiva indican que las diferencias regionales bien podrían aumentar debido a la migración interregional de los trabajadores. Aquí analizamos el efecto de la movilidad laboral en las desigualdades regionales en Alemania entre 1995 y 2005. Teniendo en cuenta la migración así como los desplazamientos al trabajo, calculamos los efectos en los salarios y el desempleo regionales. Los resultados indican que la movilidad laboral tiende a reducir las desigualdades, sin embargo, observamos solamente efectos significativos en las desigualdades de desempleo. Desigualdades regionales Migración Desplazamientos al trabajo Alemania

Suggested Citation

  • Annekatrin Niebuhr & Nadia Granato & Anette Haas & Silke Hamann, 2012. "Does Labour Mobility Reduce Disparities between Regional Labour Markets in Germany?," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 46(7), pages 841-858, September.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:regstd:v:46:y:2012:i:7:p:841-858
    DOI: 10.1080/00343404.2010.532118
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    1. Peter Huber & Gabriele Tondl, 2012. "Migration and regional convergence in the European Union," Empirica, Springer;Austrian Institute for Economic Research;Austrian Economic Association, vol. 39(4), pages 439-460, November.
    2. Niklas Potrafke, 2013. "Economic Freedom and Government Ideology across the German States," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 47(3), pages 433-449, March.
    3. Christoph Kern, 2014. "Regional Structures and Mobility Dispositions: A Multilevel Proportional- & Partial-Proportional Odds Approach," SOEPpapers on Multidisciplinary Panel Data Research 681, DIW Berlin, The German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP).
    4. Francesco Pastore, 2012. "Primum vivere . . . industrial change, job destruction and the geographical distribution of unemployment," IZA Journal of European Labor Studies, Springer;Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit GmbH (IZA), vol. 1(1), pages 1-15, December.
    5. Bönisch, Peter & Schneider, Lutz, 2010. "Why are East Germans not More Mobile? Analyzing the Impact of Social Ties on Regional Migration," IWH Discussion Papers 16/2010, Halle Institute for Economic Research (IWH).
    6. Oliver Lerbs, 2011. "Is there a link between homeownership and unemployment? Evidence from German regional data," International Economics and Economic Policy, Springer, vol. 8(4), pages 407-426, December.
    7. Fendel Tanja, 2016. "Migration and Regional Wage Disparities in Germany," Journal of Economics and Statistics (Jahrbuecher fuer Nationaloekonomie und Statistik), De Gruyter, vol. 236(1), pages 3-35, February.
    8. Arntz, Melanie & Gregory, Terry & Lehmer, Florian, 2011. "Unequal pay or unequal employment? What drives the skill-composition of labor flows in Germany?," ZEW Discussion Papers 11-074, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
    9. Kubis, Alexander & Schneider, Lutz, 2012. "Human capital mobility and convergence : a spatial dynamic panel model of the German regions," IAB Discussion Paper 201223, Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany].
    10. F. Pastore, 2015. "The Mezzogiorno and Crisis after Market and State Failures. A Review of Economic Literature," Rivista economica del Mezzogiorno, Società editrice il Mulino, issue 3-4, pages 525-582.
    11. Caliendo, Marco & Cobb-Clark, Deborah A. & Hennecke, Juliane & Uhlendorff, Arne, 2015. "Job Search, Locus of Control, and Internal Migration," IZA Discussion Papers 9600, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    12. Elena Vakulenko, 2016. "Does migration lead to regional convergence in Russia?," International Journal of Economic Policy in Emerging Economies, Inderscience Enterprises Ltd, vol. 9(1), pages 1-25.
    13. Benjamin Wirth, 2013. "Ranking German regions using interregional migration - What does internal migration tells us about regional well-being?," ERSA conference papers ersa13p1254, European Regional Science Association.
    14. Buch, Tanja & Hamann, Silke & Meier, Henning & Niebuhr, Annekatrin & Peters, Cornelius & Puckelwald, Johannes, 2011. "Analyse der Berücksichtigung eines Wanderungsindikators im Rahmen der Abgrenzung des GRW-Fördergebiets : Gutachten für die Gemeinschaftsaufgabe "Verbesserung der regionalen Wirtschaftsstruktur&qu," IAB-Forschungsbericht 201104, Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany].
    15. Kondo, Keisuke, 2015. "Spatial persistence of Japanese unemployment rates," Japan and the World Economy, Elsevier, vol. 36(C), pages 113-122.
    16. Huang, Qiong & Chand, Satish, 2015. "Spatial spillovers of regional wages: Evidence from Chinese provinces," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 32(C), pages 97-109.
    17. Anne Otto & Rikard Eriksson & Martin Henning, 2015. "Industrial and geographical mobility of workers exiting the Swedish and West German shipbuilding industry 1970-2000," ERSA conference papers ersa15p958, European Regional Science Association.
    18. Siegloch, Sebastian, 2014. "Employment Effects of Local Business Taxes," Annual Conference 2014 (Hamburg): Evidence-based Economic Policy 100325, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
    19. Uwe Blien & Stefan Fuchs & Georg Hirte, 2013. "New advances in the analysis of regional labour markets," Papers in Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 92(2), pages 243-248, June.
    20. Svenja Gärtner, 2016. "New Macroeconomic Evidence on Internal Migration in Sweden, 1967-2003," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 50(1), pages 137-153, January.
    21. Nadia Granato & Anette Haas & Silke Hamann & Annekatrin Niebuhr, 2015. "The Impact Of Skill-Specific Migration On Regional Unemployment Disparities In Germany," Journal of Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 55(4), pages 513-539, September.
    22. Aura Reggiani & Pietro Bucci & Giovanni Russo & Anette Haas & Peter Nijkamp, 2011. "Regional Labour Markets and Job Accessibility in City Network Systems in Germany," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 11-104/3, Tinbergen Institute.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • C23 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Models with Panel Data; Spatio-temporal Models
    • J61 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers - - - Geographic Labor Mobility; Immigrant Workers
    • R23 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Household Analysis - - - Regional Migration; Regional Labor Markets; Population

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