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Changing Labour Markets and Early Career Outcomes: Labour Market Entry in Europe Over the Past Decade


  • Markus Gangl

    (University of Mannheim, Germany


The paper addresses the driving forces behind recent changes in labour market outcomes among market entrants in Europe. Based on data for 12 European countries from the 1988-97 European Community Labour Force Surveys, the empirical analyses estimate panel data models to assess the effects of cyclical changes in aggregate economic conditions, changing youth cohort sizes, increasing educational expansion and structural changes in labour demand on market entrants' unemployment risks and occupational allocation. In general, it is found that unemployment risks have closely followed the evolution of aggregate economic conditions with only slight impact from demographic factors. Changes in occupational allocation, in turn, are more dependent on the relative evolution of educational expansion and occupational upgrading trends. In addition, these trends have not affected all school leavers evenly: the lowest qualified are most heavily affected by cyclical changes in economic conditions, while leavers from tertiary level education have been more strongly affected by recent trends of changing occupational attainment. More troublesome, however, is that continuing occupational upgrading is established to contribute to increasing labour market difficulties in particular among the lowest qualified leavers.

Suggested Citation

  • Markus Gangl, 2002. "Changing Labour Markets and Early Career Outcomes: Labour Market Entry in Europe Over the Past Decade," Work, Employment & Society, British Sociological Association, vol. 16(1), pages 67-90, March.
  • Handle: RePEc:sae:woemps:v:16:y:2002:i:1:p:67-90

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    Cited by:

    1. Maria Sironi, 2018. "Economic Conditions of Young Adults Before and After the Great Recession," Journal of Family and Economic Issues, Springer, vol. 39(1), pages 103-116, March.
    2. Cörvers, F. & Heijke, J.A.M. & Kriechel, B. & Pfeifer, H., 2011. "High and steady or low and rising? : life cycle earnings patterns in vocational and general education," Research Memorandum 042, Maastricht University, Maastricht Research School of Economics of Technology and Organization (METEOR).
    3. Brzinsky-Fay, Christian, 2006. "Lost in transition: labour market entry sequences of school leavers in Europe," Discussion Papers, Research Unit: Labor Market Policy and Employment SP I 2006-111, WZB Berlin Social Science Center.
    4. Anker, Richard, & Melkas, Helinä. & Korten, Ailsa., 2003. "Gender-based occupational segregation in the 1990s," ILO Working Papers 993665943402676, International Labour Organization.
    5. repec:ilo:ilowps:366594 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. Werner Eichhorst & Tito Boeri & Michela Braga & An de Coen & Galasso Vicenzo & Maarten Gerard & Michael J. Kendzia & Christine Mayrhuber & Jakob Louis Pedersen & Ricarda Schmidl & Nadia Steiber, 2013. "Combining the Entry of Young People in the Labour Market with the Retention of Older Workers," WIFO Studies, WIFO, number 46988.
    7. repec:spr:soinre:v:141:y:2019:i:3:d:10.1007_s11205-018-1877-4 is not listed on IDEAS
    8. repec:spr:jlabrs:v:52:y:2018:i:1:d:10.1186_s12651-018-0239-7 is not listed on IDEAS
    9. Fagateanu Alina-Mihaela & Nicolaescu Sergiu Ştefan & Kifor Claudiu Vasile & Mărginean Silvia, 2015. "Student Career Management – Private and Public Sector Involvement," Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education, Sciendo, vol. 1(1), pages 1-9, November.


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