Is the accumulation of international reserves good for development?
International reserves accumulation has been the preferred policy recently adopted by developing economies to achieve financial stability. The aim of this policy is to increase liquidity and thus reduce the risk of suffering a speculative attack. The main concern expressed in the literature has been related to its cost. Most of the studies conclude that the opportunity cost of international reserves accumulation is around 1% of GDP. However, these studies have not analysed whether this strategy is, or could be, more broadly supportive of development, an issue that must be of central interest for developing economies. The aim of this paper is to show that the stockpiling of international reserves is not optimal for developmental purposes and that there exist alternative policies that can be applied to achieve financial stability, policy autonomy and a better performance in terms of development. Copyright The Author 2008. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Cambridge Political Economy Society. All rights reserved., Oxford University Press.
If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
Volume (Year): 32 (2008)
Issue (Month): 5 (September)
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: Oxford University Press, Great Clarendon Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, UK|
Fax: 01865 267 985
Web page: http://www.cje.oupjournals.org/
|Order Information:||Web: http://www.oup.co.uk/journals|
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Aaron Tornell & Frank Westermann & Lorenza Martinez, 2004.
"The Positive Link Between Financial Liberalization Growth and Crises,"
UCLA Economics Working Papers
834, UCLA Department of Economics.
- Aaron Tornell & Frank Westermann & Lorenza Martinez, 2004. "The Positive Link Between Financial Liberalization, Growth and Crises," NBER Working Papers 10293, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Aaron Tornell & Frank Westermann & Lorenza Martínez, 2004. "The Positive Link Between Financial Liberalization, Growth, and Crises," CESifo Working Paper Series 1164, CESifo Group Munich.
- Ajit Singh, 2003. "Capital Account Liberalization, Free Long-Term Capital Flows, Financial Crises and Economic Development," Eastern Economic Journal, Eastern Economic Association, vol. 29(2), pages 191-216, Spring.
- Ajit Singh, 2002. "Capital account liberalization, free long-term capital flows, financial crises and economic development," Working Papers wp245, Centre for Business Research, University of Cambridge.
- Dani Rodrik, 2006. "The social cost of foreign exchange reserves," International Economic Journal, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 20(3), pages 253-266.
- Dani Rodrik, 2006. "The Social Cost of Foreign Exchange Reserves," NBER Working Papers 11952, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Rodrik, Dani, 2006. "The Social Cost of Foreign Exchange Reserves," CEPR Discussion Papers 5483, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Dani Rodrik, 2006. "The Social Cost of Foreign Exchange Reserves," Working Papers id:357, eSocialSciences.
- Edwards, Sebastian, 2003. "Financial instability in Latin America," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 22(7), pages 1095-1106, December.
- Frenkel, Roberto & Ros, Jaime, 2006. "Unemployment and the real exchange rate in Latin America," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 34(4), pages 631-646, April.
- Valerie Cerra & Sweta Chaman Saxena, 2008. "Growth Dynamics: The Myth of Economic Recovery," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 98(1), pages 439-457, March.
- Sweta Chaman Saxena & Valerie Cerra, 2005. "Growth Dynamics; The Myth of Economic Recovery," IMF Working Papers 05/147, International Monetary Fund.
- Valerie Cerra & Sweta C. Saxena, 2005. "Growth Dynamics: The Myth of Economic Recovery," Macroeconomics 0508008, EconWPA.
- Valerie Cerra & Sweta Chaman Saxena, 2007. "Growth dynamics: the myth of economic recovery," BIS Working Papers 226, Bank for International Settlements.
- Gabriel Palma, 2000. "The Three Routes to Financial Crises: The Need for Capital Controls," SCEPA working paper series. SCEPA's main areas of research are macroeconomic policy, inequality and poverty, and globalization. 2000-17, Schwartz Center for Economic Policy Analysis (SCEPA), The New School.
- Michael Chui & Simon Hall & Ashley Taylor, 2004. "Crisis spillovers in emerging market economies: interlinkages, vulnerabilities and investor behaviour," Bank of England working papers 212, Bank of England.
- Manuel Agosin & Ricardo French-Davis, 1997. "Managing capital inflows in Chile," Estudios de Economia, University of Chile, Department of Economics, vol. 24(2 Year 19), pages 297-326, December.
- Ilene Grabel, 2003. "Averting crisis? Assessing measures to manage financial integration in emerging economies," Cambridge Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 27(3), pages 317-336, May.
- Graham Bird & Ramkishen Rajan, 2003. "Too Much of a Good Thing? The Adequacy of International Reserves in the Aftermath of Crises," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 26(6), pages 873-891, 06.
- Graham Bird & Ramkishen Rajan, 2002. "Too Much of a Good Thing?: The Adequacy of International Reserves in the Aftermath of Crises," Centre for International Economic Studies Working Papers 2002-10, University of Adelaide, Centre for International Economic Studies.
- Mikesell, Raymond F., 2001. "Dual Exchange Markets for Countries Facing Financial Crises," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 29(6), pages 1035-1041, June.
- A. P. Thirlwall, 2003. "Trade, the Balance of Payments and Exchange Rate Policy in Developing Countries," Books, Edward Elgar Publishing, number 2957.
- Moritz Cruz & Edmund Amann & Bernard Walters, 2006. "Expectations, the business cycle and the Mexican peso crisis," Cambridge Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 30(5), pages 701-722, September.
- De Gregorio, Jose & Edwards, Sebastian & Valdes, Rodrigo O., 2000. "Controls on capital inflows: do they work?," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 63(1), pages 59-83, October.
- Jose De Gregorio & Sebastian Edwards & Rodrigo O. Valdes, 2000. "Controls on Capital Inflows: Do they Work?," NBER Working Papers 7645, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Davidson, Paul, 1972. "Money and the Real World," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 82(325), pages 101-115, March.
- Grabel, Ilene, 1996. "Marketing the third world: The contradictions of portfolio investment in the global economy," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 24(11), pages 1761-1776, November.
- Ramachandran, M., 2004. "The optimal level of international reserves: evidence for India," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 83(3), pages 365-370, June.
- Pablo García & Claudio Soto, 2006. "Large Hoardings of International Reserves: Are They Worth It?," Central Banking, Analysis, and Economic Policies Book Series,in: Ricardo Caballero & César Calderón & Luis Felipe Céspedes & Norman Loayza (Series Editor) & Klaus Sc (ed.), External Vulnerability and Preventive Policies, edition 1, volume 10, chapter 6, pages 171-206 Central Bank of Chile.
- Pablo García & Claudio Soto, 2004. "Large Hoardings of International Reserves: Are They Worth It?," Working Papers Central Bank of Chile 299, Central Bank of Chile.
- Vijay Joshi, 2003. "India and the Impossible Trinity," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 26(4), pages 555-583, 04.
- Eichengreen, Barry, 2000. "Taming Capital Flows," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 28(6), pages 1105-1116, June.
- Graham Bird & Alex Mandilaras, 2005. "Reserve Accumulation in Asia," World Economics, World Economics, Economic & Financial Publishing, 1 Ivory Square, Plantation Wharf, London, United Kingdom, SW11 3UE, vol. 6(1), pages 85-99, January.
- Anita Doraisami, 2004. "From crisis to recovery: the motivations for and effects of Malaysian capital controls," Journal of International Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 16(2), pages 241-254.
- Ben-Bassat, Avraham & Gottlieb, Daniel, 1992. "Optimal international reserves and sovereign risk," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(3-4), pages 345-362, November.
- Mendoza, Ronald U., 2004. "International reserve-holding in the developing world: self insurance in a crisis-prone era?," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 5(1), pages 61-82, March.
- David, Antonio C., 2007. "Controls on capital inflows and external shocks," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4176, The World Bank.
- Eatwell, John & Taylor, Lance (ed.), 2002. "International Capital Markets: Systems in Transition," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780195154986.
- Polterovich, Victor & Popov, Vladimir, 2003. "Accumulation of Foreign Exchange Reserves and Long Term Growth," MPRA Paper 20069, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- M S Mohanty & Philip Turner, 2006. "Foreign exchange reserve accumulation in emerging markets: what are the domestic implications?," BIS Quarterly Review, Bank for International Settlements, September.
- Ha-Joon Chang, 2002. "Breaking the mould: an institutionalist political economy alternative to the neo-liberal theory of the market and the state," Cambridge Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 26(5), pages 539-559, September. Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)