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The Demand for International Reserves and Exchange Rate Adjustments: TheCase of LDCs, 1964-1972


  • Sebastian Edwards


In this paper the relationship between the demand for international reserves and exchange rate adjustments is empirically investigated for agroup of LDC's. It is shown that countries that have maintained a fixed exchange rate for a long period of time have a different demand function than countries that have occasionally used exchange rate adjustments for correcting payments imbalances. The dynamics of the adjustment for both groupsof countries are also analyzed. The results show that while both groups tend to eliminate reserve disequilibria fast, those countries that have maintained a fixed rate tend to do it more slowly than countries that have occasionally devalued their currency. It Is also shown that the year prior to a devaluation, international reserves have been, on average, 30% below their short-run desired level. These results are important since they indicate that not all LDC's should be aggregated for prediction purposes. The results also have implications for the analysis of the adequacy of international reserves in less developed countries.

Suggested Citation

  • Sebastian Edwards, 1983. "The Demand for International Reserves and Exchange Rate Adjustments: TheCase of LDCs, 1964-1972," NBER Working Papers 1063, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:1063
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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Clark, Peter B, 1970. "Optimum International Reserves and the Speed of Adjustment," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 78(2), pages 356-376, March-Apr.
    2. Olivera, Julio H G, 1969. "A Note on the Optimal Rate of Growth of International Reserves," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 77(2), pages 245-248, March/Apr.
    3. Frenkel, Jacob A, 1974. "The Demand for International Reserves by Developed and Less-Developed Countries," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 41(161), pages 14-24, February.
    4. John Makin, 1974. "Exchange rate flexibility and the demand for international reserves," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 110(2), pages 229-243, June.
    5. Edwards, Sebastian, 1980. "A note on the dynamic adjustment of the demand for international reserves by LDC's," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 5(1), pages 71-74.
    6. John F. O. Bilson & Jacob A. Frenkel, 1979. "Dynamic Adjustment and the Demand for International Reserves," NBER Working Papers 0407, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    7. Nerlove, Marc, 1971. "Further Evidence on the Estimation of Dynamic Economic Relations from a Time Series of Cross Sections," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 39(2), pages 359-382, March.
    8. Edward L. Whalen, 1966. "A Rationalization of the Precautionary Demand for Cash," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 80(2), pages 314-324.
    9. Maynard, Geoffrey & Bird, Graham, 1975. "International monetary issues and the developing countries: a survey," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 3(9), pages 609-631, September.
    10. Andrew D. Crockett, 1978. "Control over International Reserves (Surveillance des réserves internationales) (El control de las reservas internacionales)," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 25(1), pages 1-24, March.
    11. Jacob A. Frenkel & Boyan Jovanovic, 1980. "On Transactions and Precautionary Demand for Money," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 95(1), pages 25-43.
    12. Kelly, Michael G, 1970. "The Demand for International Reserves," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 60(4), pages 655-667, September.
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    Cited by:

    1. Joshua Aizenman, 2008. "International Reserve Management and the Current Account," Central Banking, Analysis, and Economic Policies Book Series,in: Kevin Cowan & Sebastián Edwards & Rodrigo O. Valdés & Norman Loayza (Series Editor) & Klaus Schmidt- (ed.), Current Account and External Financing, edition 1, volume 12, chapter 11, pages 435-474 Central Bank of Chile.
    2. Neda Popovska-Kamnar & Miso Nikolov & Artan Sulejmani, 2016. "Determinants Of The International Reserves In The Republic Of Macedonia," Journal Articles, Center For Economic Analyses, pages 51-61, December.
    3. Aizenman, Joshua & Sun, Yi, 2012. "The financial crisis and sizable international reserves depletion: From ‘fear of floating’ to the ‘fear of losing international reserves’?," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 24(C), pages 250-269.
    4. Ledenyov, Dimitri O. & Ledenyov, Viktor O., 2015. "Wave function method to forecast foreign currencies exchange rates at ultra high frequency electronic trading in foreign currencies exchange markets," MPRA Paper 67470, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    5. Kristin Magnussen, 2011. "International Reserve Adequacy in Central America," IMF Working Papers 11/144, International Monetary Fund.
    6. Changkyu Choi & Seung-Gwan Baek, 2008. "Exchange-Rate Regimes and International Reserves," Korean Economic Review, Korean Economic Association, vol. 24, pages 105-129.
    7. Hee-Ryang Ra, 2008. "Dilution of Opportunity Cost Effect on the Demand for International Reserves in the High Reserve Era," Korean Economic Review, Korean Economic Association, vol. 24, pages 151-171.
    8. Worrell, DeLisle & Lowe, Shane & Naitram, Simon, 2012. "Growth Forecasts for Foreign Exchange Constrained Economies," MPRA Paper 52169, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    9. Antonio Francisco A. Silva Jr, 2011. "The Self-insurance Role of International Reserves and the 2008-2010 Crisis," Working Papers Series 256, Central Bank of Brazil, Research Department.
    10. Shijaku, Gerti, 2012. "Optimal level of reserve holding: an empirical investigation in the case of Albania," MPRA Paper 79091, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    11. Zeaiter, Hussein Zeaiter, 2013. "Sovereign Debt Defaults: Evidence using Extreme bounds Analysis," Working Papers 32/2013, Universidade Portucalense, Centro de Investigação em Gestão e Economia (CIGE).
    12. repec:eco:journ1:2014-02-3 is not listed on IDEAS
    13. Mei-yin Lin, 2011. "Foreign Reserves and Economic Growth: Granger Causality Analysis with Panel Data," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 31(2), pages 1563-1575.

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