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Indian Currency and Beyond. The Legacy of the Early Economics of Keynes in the Times of Bretton Woods II


  • Anna M. Carabelli
  • Mario A. Cedrini

    (SEMEQ Department - Faculty of Economics - University of Eastern Piedmont)


In the paper, we revisit the focus and method of “Indian Currency and Finance” (1913) and the rationale of Keynes's proposal for an international monetary system combining cheapness with stability. In particular, we centre on the management of exchange reserve and the pattern of relationships between creditor and debtor countries, to suggest that Keynes's fresh look at Asia in the first years of the twentieth century may provide useful hints for an overall rethinking of the major faults of today's Bretton Woods II system as well as the rationale for a global monetary reform.

Suggested Citation

  • Anna M. Carabelli & Mario A. Cedrini, 2009. "Indian Currency and Beyond. The Legacy of the Early Economics of Keynes in the Times of Bretton Woods II," Working Papers 121, SEMEQ Department - Faculty of Economics - University of Eastern Piedmont.
  • Handle: RePEc:upo:upopwp:122

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Catherine L. Mann, 2005. "Breaking Up is Hard to Do: Global Co-Dependency, Collective Action, and the Challenges of Global Adjustment," CESifo Forum, Ifo Institute - Leibniz Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich, vol. 6(1), pages 16-23, June.
    2. Jan KREGEL, 2004. "External Financing For Development And International Financial Instability," G-24 Discussion Papers 32, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development.
    3. Moritz Cruz & Bernard Walters, 2008. "Is the accumulation of international reserves good for development?," Cambridge Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 32(5), pages 665-681, September.
    4. Maurice Obstfeld & Jay C. Shambaugh & Alan M. Taylor, 2009. "Financial Instability, Reserves, and Central Bank Swap Lines in the Panic of 2008," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 99(2), pages 480-486, May.
    5. Roberto Marchionatti, 2010. "J. M. Keynes, thinker of economic complexity," History of Economic Ideas, Fabrizio Serra Editore, Pisa - Roma, vol. 18(2), pages 115-146.
    6. Aizenman, Joshua, 2009. "On the paradox of prudential regulations in the globalized economy; International reserves and the crisis: a reassessment," Santa Cruz Department of Economics, Working Paper Series qt5hx2x2kj, Department of Economics, UC Santa Cruz.
    7. Michael Dooley & David Folkerts-Landau & Peter Garber, 2009. "Bretton Woods Ii Still Defines The International Monetary System," Pacific Economic Review, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 14(3), pages 297-311, August.
    8. Helmut Reisen & Martin Grandes & Nicolas Pinaud, 2005. "Macroeconomic Policies: New Issues of Interdependence," OECD Development Centre Working Papers 241, OECD Publishing.
    9. Joshua Aizenman, 2008. "Large Hoarding Of International Reserves And The Emerging Global Economic Architecture," Manchester School, University of Manchester, vol. 76(5), pages 487-503, September.
    10. Mario A. Cedrini, 2008. "Fighting Through Britain. The “Gift Dimension” of Keynes's Quest for a New Global Order," Working Papers 119, SEMEQ Department - Faculty of Economics - University of Eastern Piedmont.
    11. Eichengreen, Barry, 2006. "Global imbalances: The new economy, the dark matter, the savvy investor, and the standard analysis," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 28(6), pages 645-652, September.
    12. Anna Carabelli & Mario Cedrini, 2011. "The Economic Problem of Happiness: Keynes on Happiness and Economics," Forum for Social Economics, Springer;The Association for Social Economics, vol. 40(3), pages 335-359, October.
    13. Robert Dimand, 2006. "Keynes on Global Economic Integration," Atlantic Economic Journal, Springer;International Atlantic Economic Society, vol. 34(2), pages 175-182, June.
    14. David Vines, 2003. "John maynard keynes 1937-1946: the creation of international macroeconomics," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 113(488), pages 338-361, June.
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    Cited by:

    1. Carabelli, Anna & Cedrini, Mario, 2013. "Globalization and Keynes's Ideal of a 'Sounder Political Economy between All Nations," CESMEP Working Papers 201305, University of Turin.
    2. Anna M. Carabelli & Mario A. Cedrini, 2014. "Keynes's General Theory , Treatise on Money and Tract on Monetary Reform : different theories, same methodological approach?," The European Journal of the History of Economic Thought, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 21(6), pages 1060-1084, December.
    3. Anna Carabelli, 2012. "A new methodological approach to economic theory: what I have learnt from 30 years of research on Keynes," Chapters,in: Keynes’s General Theory for Today, chapter 5, pages 79-97 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    4. Jörg Bibow, 2010. "Global imbalances, the US dollar, and how the crisis at the core of global finance spread to "self-insuring" emerging market economies," European Journal of Economics and Economic Policies: Intervention, Edward Elgar Publishing, vol. 7(2), pages 325-359.

    More about this item


    John Maynard Keynes; Indian Currency and Finance; international economic order; exchange reserves;

    JEL classification:

    • B31 - Schools of Economic Thought and Methodology - - History of Economic Thought: Individuals - - - Individuals
    • B40 - Schools of Economic Thought and Methodology - - Economic Methodology - - - General
    • F02 - International Economics - - General - - - International Economic Order and Integration
    • F31 - International Economics - - International Finance - - - Foreign Exchange

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