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How Economic Development Affects Antibiotic Resistance

Author

Listed:
  • John B. Horowitz
  • H. Brian Moehring

Abstract

Initially, economic development increases resistance because migration of people to urban areas in developing countries increases incomes, crowding and the use of antibiotics. Also, developing countries often don't require prescriptions or distribute high quality antibiotics. In developed countries, antibiotic resistance often falls or there is a decline in the rate of growth of resistance because infections decline with improvements in water quality, sanitation, housing and nutrition. However, in developed countries most antibiotics are used to treat food animals rather than humans. The use of antibiotics to treat food animals creates a risk that the effectiveness of antibiotics to treat humans will be reduced. However, evidence seems to indicate that antibiotic use in animals has had little effect on antibiotic resistance in humans.

Suggested Citation

  • John B. Horowitz & H. Brian Moehring, 2014. "How Economic Development Affects Antibiotic Resistance," Journal for Economic Educators, Middle Tennessee State University, Business and Economic Research Center, vol. 14(1), pages 58-77, Fall.
  • Handle: RePEc:mts:jrnlee:v:14:y:2014:i:1:p:58-77
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    File URL: http://capone.mtsu.edu/jee/2014/P58to77-MS912.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Todaro, Michael P, 1969. "A Model for Labor Migration and Urban Unemployment in Less Developed Countries," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 59(1), pages 138-148, March.
    2. John B. Horowitz & H. Brian Moehring, 2004. "How property rights and patents affect antibiotic resistance," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 13(6), pages 575-583.
    3. Easterlin, Richard A. & Angelescu, Laura & Zweig, Jacqueline S., 2011. "The Impact of Modern Economic Growth on Urban–Rural Differences in Subjective Well-Being," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 39(12), pages 2187-2198.
    4. Pablo Gottret & George Schieber, 2006. "Health Financing Revisited : A Practitioner's Guide," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 7094.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    More about this item

    Keywords

    economic development; antibiotic resistance; antimicrobial resistance;

    JEL classification:

    • D62 - Microeconomics - - Welfare Economics - - - Externalities
    • I15 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Health - - - Health and Economic Development
    • I18 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Health - - - Government Policy; Regulation; Public Health
    • O15 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Economic Development: Human Resources; Human Development; Income Distribution; Migration
    • R23 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Household Analysis - - - Regional Migration; Regional Labor Markets; Population

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