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Uncertainty, Risk Aversion, and WTA vs. WTP

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  • Erica Mina Okada

    () (Shidler College of Business, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawaii 96822)

Abstract

We examine a previously unstudied category of exchange items in which the true value is unknown to both the buyer and seller at the time of exchange but becomes known to both at a future time after the exchange. Real-world examples of such exchange items as in our study include forward contracts and fixed-fee turnkey contracts. We demonstrate that the discrepancy between the seller's willingness to accept (WTA) and buyer's willingness to pay (WTP) increases with (1) the level of uncertainty about the exchange item's value and (2) the exchange parties' level of risk aversion. In a series of studies, we manipulate and measure the level of uncertainty of the exchange item, measure the level of risk aversion of the exchange parties, and study the respective effects on decreasing the WTP while increasing the WTA.

Suggested Citation

  • Erica Mina Okada, 2010. "Uncertainty, Risk Aversion, and WTA vs. WTP," Marketing Science, INFORMS, vol. 29(1), pages 75-84, 01-02.
  • Handle: RePEc:inm:ormksc:v:29:y:2010:i:1:p:75-84
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    File URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1287/mksc.1080.0480
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. repec:eee:eecrev:v:94:y:2017:i:c:p:240-262 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. Drouvelis, Michalis & Sonnemans, Joep, 2017. "The endowment effect in games," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 94(C), pages 240-262.
    3. Khantachavana, Sivalai V. & Turvey, Calum G. & Kong, Rong & Xia, Xianli, 2013. "On the transaction values of land use rights in rural China," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 41(3), pages 863-878.
    4. Erik Maier & Robert Wilken & Florian Dost, 2015. "The double benefits of consumer certainty: combining risk and range effects," Marketing Letters, Springer, vol. 26(4), pages 473-488, December.
    5. Robert Reilly & Douglas Davis, 2015. "The effects of uncertainty on the WTA–WTP gap," Theory and Decision, Springer, vol. 78(2), pages 261-272, February.

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