IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/hpe/journl/y2012v200i1p95-130.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

The Impact of Tax and Expenditure Policies on Income Distribution: Evidence from a Large Panel of Countries

Author

Listed:
  • Jorge Martínez-Vázquez

    (Georgia State University)

  • Violeta Vulovic

    (Georgia State University)

  • Blanca Moreno Dodson

    (The World Bank)

Abstract

This paper focuses is on the potential role that taxation and public expenditure policies play in general in affecting income distribution. We find that progressive personal income taxes and corporate income taxes reduce income inequality. However, the effect of corporate income taxes seems to be eroded away in open or globalized economies. We also find that general consumption taxes, excise taxes and customs duties have a negative impact on income distribution. on the expenditure side, we find that higher shares of GDP on social welfare, education, health and housing public expenditures have a positive impact on income distribution.

Suggested Citation

  • Jorge Martínez-Vázquez & Violeta Vulovic & Blanca Moreno Dodson, 2012. "The Impact of Tax and Expenditure Policies on Income Distribution: Evidence from a Large Panel of Countries," Hacienda Pública Española / Review of Public Economics, IEF, vol. 200(1), pages 95-130, March.
  • Handle: RePEc:hpe:journl:y:2012:v:200:i:1:p:95-130
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://www.ief.es/comun/Descarga.cshtml?ruta=~/docs/destacados/publicaciones/revistas/hpe/200_Art4.pdf
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. José De Gregorio & Jong–Wha Lee, 2002. "Education and Income Inequality: New Evidence From Cross‐Country Data," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 48(3), pages 395-416, September.
    2. Sawers, Larry & Wachtel, Howard M, 1975. "Theory of the State, Government Tax and Purchasing Policy, and Income Distribution," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 21(1), pages 111-124, March.
    3. Persson, Torsten & Tabellini, Guido, 2002. "Political economics and public finance," Handbook of Public Economics, in: A. J. Auerbach & M. Feldstein (ed.), Handbook of Public Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 24, pages 1549-1659, Elsevier.
    4. Dollar, David & Kraay, Aart, 2002. "Growth Is Good for the Poor," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol. 7(3), pages 195-225, September.
    5. Stefano Paternostro & Anand Rajaram & Erwin R. Tiongson, 2007. "How Does the Composition of Public Spending Matter?," Oxford Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 35(1), pages 47-82.
    6. Arellano, Manuel & Bover, Olympia, 1995. "Another look at the instrumental variable estimation of error-components models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 68(1), pages 29-51, July.
    7. Moreno-Dodson, Blanca & Wodon, Quentin, 2008. "Public Finance for Poverty Reduction: An Overview," MPRA Paper 11078, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    8. David Roodman, 2009. "How to do xtabond2: An introduction to difference and system GMM in Stata," Stata Journal, StataCorp LP, vol. 9(1), pages 86-136, March.
    9. Branko Milanovic, 2006. "Global Income Inequality," World Economics, World Economics, 1 Ivory Square, Plantation Wharf, London, United Kingdom, SW11 3UE, vol. 7(1), pages 131-157, January.
    10. Larry Sawers & Howard M. Wachtel, 1975. "Theory Of The State, Government Tax And Purchasing Policy, And Income Distribution," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 21(1), pages 111-124, March.
    11. Cristian F Sepulveda & Jorge Martinez-Vazquez, 2011. "The Consequences of Fiscal Decentralization on Poverty and Income Equality," Environment and Planning C, , vol. 29(2), pages 321-343, April.
    12. Leah Platt Boustan & Fernando Ferreira & Hernan Winkler & Eric Zolt, 2010. "Income Inequality and Local Government in the United States, 1970-2000," NBER Working Papers 16299, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    13. Sullström, Risto & Riihelä, Marja & Suoniemi, Ilpo, 2008. "Tax Progressivity and Recent Evolution of the Finnish Income Inequality," Discussion Papers 460, VATT Institute for Economic Research.
    14. Oscar Alfranca & Miguel-Angel Galindo, 2003. "Public expenditure, income distribution, and growth in OECD countries," International Advances in Economic Research, Springer;International Atlantic Economic Society, vol. 9(2), pages 133-139, May.
    15. Bahl, Roy & Martinez-Vazquez, Jorge & Wallace, Sally, 2002. "State and Local Government Choices in Fiscal Redistribution," National Tax Journal, National Tax Association;National Tax Journal, vol. 55(4), pages 723-742, December.
    16. Branko Milanovic, 2005. "Global Income Inequality: What It Is And Why It Matters?," HEW 0512001, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    17. Onur Ozsoy, 2008. "Government Budget Deficits, Defence Expenditure And Income Distribution: The Case Of Turkey," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 19(1), pages 61-75.
    18. Jorge Martinez-Vazquez, 2001. "The Impact of Budgets on the Poor: Tax and Benefit," International Center for Public Policy Working Paper Series, at AYSPS, GSU paper0110, International Center for Public Policy, Andrew Young School of Policy Studies, Georgia State University.
    19. Holtz-Eakin, Douglas & Newey, Whitney & Rosen, Harvey S, 1988. "Estimating Vector Autoregressions with Panel Data," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 56(6), pages 1371-1395, November.
    20. Borge, Lars-Erik & Rattso, J.Jorn, 2004. "Income distribution and tax structure: Empirical test of the Meltzer-Richard hypothesis," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 48(4), pages 805-826, August.
    21. Holger Strulik, 2007. "A distributional theory of government growth," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 132(3), pages 305-318, September.
    22. Baer, Werner & Galvão Jr., Antonio Fialho, 2008. "Tax burden, government expenditures and income distribution in Brazil," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 48(2), pages 345-358, May.
    23. Blundell, Richard & Bond, Stephen, 1998. "Initial conditions and moment restrictions in dynamic panel data models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 87(1), pages 115-143, August.
    24. Bjorklund, Anders, 1991. " Unemployment and Income Distribution: Time-Series Evidence from Sweden," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 93(3), pages 457-465.
    25. Stuart Adam & James Browne, 2010. "Redistribution, work incentives and thirty years of UK tax and benefit reform," IFS Working Papers W10/24, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
    26. Ocampo, José Antonio, 1998. "Income distribution, poverty and social expenditure in Latin America," Revista CEPAL, Naciones Unidas Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe (CEPAL), August.
    27. von Weizsa[dieresis]cker, Robert K., 1989. "Demographic change and income distribution," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 33(2-3), pages 377-388, March.
    28. Ferdinand A. Gul & Judy S. L. Tsui, 2004. "Introduction and overview," Palgrave Macmillan Books, in: The Governance of East Asian Corporations, chapter 1, pages 1-26, Palgrave Macmillan.
    29. Bird, Richard M. & Zolt, Eric M., 2005. "The limited role of the personal income tax in developing countries," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 16(6), pages 928-946, December.
    30. Been-Lon Chen, 2006. "Economic growth with an optimal public spending composition," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 58(1), pages 123-136, January.
    31. Konstantinos Angelopoulos & Apostolis Philippopoulos & Efthymios Tsionas, 2008. "Does public sector efficiency matter? Revisiting the relation between fiscal size and economic growth in a world sample," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 137(1), pages 245-278, October.
    32. David Roodman, 2006. "How to Do xtabond2," North American Stata Users' Group Meetings 2006 8, Stata Users Group.
    33. Li Wenli & Pierre -Daniel Sarte, 2004. "Progressive Taxation and Long-Run Growth," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 94(5), pages 1705-1716, December.
    34. Christoph Schaltegger & Benno Torgler, 2006. "Growth effects of public expenditure on the state and local level: evidence from a sample of rich governments," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 38(10), pages 1181-1192.
    35. Harberger, Arnold C, 1998. "A Vision of the Growth Process," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 88(1), pages 1-32, March.
    36. Shantayanan Devarajan & Vinaya Swaroop & Heng-fu Zou, 1993. "What do governments buy?," CEMA Working Papers 513, China Economics and Management Academy, Central University of Finance and Economics.
    37. Richard H. Day & Chengyu Yang, 2011. "Economic Growth And The Effects Of Fiscal Policy," Metroeconomica, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 62(1), pages 218-234, February.
    38. Adam Wagstaff & Eddy van Doorslaer, 2001. "What Makes the Personal Income Tax Progressive? A Comparative Analysis for Fifteen OECD Countries," International Tax and Public Finance, Springer;International Institute of Public Finance, vol. 8(3), pages 299-316, May.
    39. Immervoll, Herwig & Richardson, Linda, 2011. "Redistribution Policy and Inequality Reduction in OECD Countries: What Has Changed in Two Decades?," IZA Discussion Papers 6030, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    40. Koen Caminada & Kees Goudswaard, 2001. "International Trends in Income Inequality and Social Policy," International Tax and Public Finance, Springer;International Institute of Public Finance, vol. 8(4), pages 395-415, August.
    41. Steven Keuning & Erik Thorbecke, 1989. "The Impact of Budget Retrenchment on Income Distribution in Indonesia (including Statistical Annex): A Social Accounting Matrix Application," OECD Development Centre Working Papers 3, OECD Publishing.
    42. Axel Dreher, 2006. "Does globalization affect growth? Evidence from a new index of globalization," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 38(10), pages 1091-1110.
    43. Clarke, George R. G., 1995. "More evidence on income distribution and growth," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 47(2), pages 403-427, August.
    44. Pushak, Taras & Tiongson, Erwin R. & Varoudakis, Aristomene, 2007. "Public finance, governance, and growth in transition economies : empirical evidence from 1992-2004," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4255, The World Bank.
    45. Peter, Klara Sabirianova & Buttrick, Steve & Duncan, Denvil, 2010. "Global Reform of Personal Income Taxation, 1981–2005: Evidence From 189 Countries," National Tax Journal, National Tax Association;National Tax Journal, vol. 63(3), pages 447-478, September.
    46. R. A. Musgrave & Tun Thin, 1948. "Income Tax Progression, 1929-48," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 56(6), pages 498-498.
    47. Mr. Benedict J. Clements, 1997. "Income Distribution and Social Expenditure in Brazil," IMF Working Papers 1997/120, International Monetary Fund.
    48. Moreno-Dodson, Blanca, 2008. "Assessing the impact of public spending on growth - an empirical analysis for seven fast growing countries," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4663, The World Bank.
    49. International Monetary Fund, 2003. "Income Inequality and Redistributive Government Spending," IMF Working Papers 2003/014, International Monetary Fund.
    50. Schuknecht, Ludger & Ebert, Werner & Thöne, Michael & Afonso, António, 2005. "Quality of public finances and growth," Working Paper Series 438, European Central Bank.
    51. Sanjeev Gupta & Hamid Davoodi & Rosa Alonso-Terme, 2002. "Does corruption affect income inequality and poverty?," Economics of Governance, Springer, vol. 3(1), pages 23-45, March.
    52. Araujo, M. Caridad & Ferreira, Francisco H.G. & Lanjouw, Peter & Özler, Berk, 2008. "Local inequality and project choice: Theory and evidence from Ecuador," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 92(5-6), pages 1022-1046, June.
    53. Christian E. Weller, 2007. "The Benefits of Progressive Taxation in Economic Development," Review of Radical Political Economics, Union for Radical Political Economics, vol. 39(3), pages 368-376, September.
    54. Howard Glennerster, 2006. "Tibor Barna: The redistributive impact of taxes and social policies in the UK: 1937-2005," CASE Papers case115, Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, LSE.
    55. Anand, Sudhir & Kanbur, S. M. R., 1993. "The Kuznets process and the inequality--development relationship," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 40(1), pages 25-52, February.
    56. Meltzer, Allan H & Richard, Scott F, 1981. "A Rational Theory of the Size of Government," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 89(5), pages 914-927, October.
    57. Schuknecht, Ludger & Tanzi, Vito, 2005. "Reforming public expenditure in industrialised countries: are there trade-offs?," Working Paper Series 435, European Central Bank.
    58. Luiz de Mello & Erwin R. Tiongson, 2006. "Income Inequality and Redistributive Government Spending," Public Finance Review, , vol. 34(3), pages 282-305, May.
    59. Herrera, Santiago, 2007. "Public expenditure and growth," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4372, The World Bank.
    60. Richard M. Bird & Eric M. Zolt, 2005. "Redistribution via Taxation: The Limited Role of the Personal Income Tax in Developing Countries (2005)," International Center for Public Policy Working Paper Series, at AYSPS, GSU paper0507, International Center for Public Policy, Andrew Young School of Policy Studies, Georgia State University.
    61. Schwartz, Gerd & Ter-Minassian, Teresa, 2000. "The Distributional Effects of Public Expenditure," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 14(3), pages 337-358, July.
    62. Manuel Arellano & Stephen Bond, 1991. "Some Tests of Specification for Panel Data: Monte Carlo Evidence and an Application to Employment Equations," The Review of Economic Studies, Review of Economic Studies Ltd, vol. 58(2), pages 277-297.
    63. Khemani, Stuti, 2010. "Political economy of infrastructure spending in India," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5423, The World Bank.
    64. Knight, J B & Sabot, R H, 1983. "Educational Expansion and the Kuznets Effect," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 73(5), pages 1132-1136, December.
    65. Devarajan, Shantayanan & Swaroop, Vinaya & Heng-fu Zou, 1993. "What do governments buy? The composition of public spending and economic performance," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1082, The World Bank.
    66. Chih-Chien Jao, 2000. "The Impact Of Tax Revenue And Social Welfare Expenditure On Income Distribution In Taiwan," Journal of the Asia Pacific Economy, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 5(1-2), pages 73-90.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Iris Claus & Jorge Martinez-Vazquez & VIoleta Vulovic, 2012. "Government Fiscal Policies and Redistribution in Asian Countries," International Center for Public Policy Working Paper Series, at AYSPS, GSU paper1213, International Center for Public Policy, Andrew Young School of Policy Studies, Georgia State University.
    2. Jorge Martinez-Vazquez & Violeta Vulovic & Yongzheng Liu, 2011. "Direct versus Indirect Taxation: Trends, Theory, and Economic Significance," Chapters, in: Emilio Albi & Jorge Martinez-Vazquez (ed.), The Elgar Guide to Tax Systems, chapter 2, Edward Elgar Publishing.
    3. Slavomíra Tahova & Anna Banociova, 2020. "Assessment of the Redistribution Function of Corporate Income Tax," Montenegrin Journal of Economics, Economic Laboratory for Transition Research (ELIT), vol. 16(3), pages 57-67.
    4. Canavire-Bacarreza, Gustavo & Martínez-Vázquez, Jorge & Vulovic, Violeta, 2013. "Taxation and Economic Growth in Latin America," IDB Publications (Working Papers) 4583, Inter-American Development Bank.
    5. Abdilahi Ali & Katsushi S. Imai, 2015. "Editor's choice Crises, Economic Integration and Growth Collapses in African Countries," Journal of African Economies, Centre for the Study of African Economies, vol. 24(4), pages 471-501.
    6. Tsun Se Cheong & Yanrui Wu, 2013. "Globalization and Regional Inequality," Economics Discussion / Working Papers 13-10, The University of Western Australia, Department of Economics.
    7. Philipp Doerrenberg & Andreas Peichl, 2014. "The impact of redistributive policies on inequality in OECD countries," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 46(17), pages 2066-2086, June.
    8. Elbahnasawy, Nasr G., 2014. "E-Government, Internet Adoption, and Corruption: An Empirical Investigation," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 57(C), pages 114-126.
    9. Tristan Canare & Jamil Paolo Francisco & Rose Ann Camille Caliso, 2020. "Decentralization and Income Inequality in a Panel and Cross‐Section of Countries," Journal of International Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 32(4), pages 543-579, May.
    10. Mohanty, Biswajit & Bhanumurthy, N. R. & Dastidar, Ananya Ghosh, 2017. "What explains Regional Imbalances in Infrastructure?: Evidence from Indian States," Working Papers 17/197, National Institute of Public Finance and Policy.
    11. Elif Acar & Gamze Vural & Emin Hüseyin Çetenak, 2020. "Evidence for Financial Hierarchy Theory in Capital Structure Decisions: Data from BIST Companies," Bogazici Journal, Review of Social, Economic and Administrative Studies, Bogazici University, Department of Economics, vol. 34(1), pages 29-50.
    12. Scott, K. Rebecca, 2015. "Demand and price uncertainty: Rational habits in international gasoline demand," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 79(C), pages 40-49.
    13. Möller Joachim & Tubadji Annie, 2009. "The Creative Class, Bohemians and Local Labor Market Performance: A Micro-data Panel Study for Germany 1975–2004," Journal of Economics and Statistics (Jahrbuecher fuer Nationaloekonomie und Statistik), De Gruyter, vol. 229(2-3), pages 270-291, April.
    14. Sylvester C. W. Eijffinger & Benedikt Goderis, 2008. "The Effect of Monetary Policy on Exchange Rates during Currency Crises: the Role of Debt, Institutions, and Financial Openness," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 16(3), pages 559-575, August.
    15. Dirk Bezemer & Anna Samarina, 2019. "Debt shift, financial development and income inequality," DNB Working Papers 646, Netherlands Central Bank, Research Department.
    16. Nadeem, Muhammad & Hayat, Muhammad Azmat & Nazir, Rabia, 2014. "Exploring Interlinks between Globalization and Governance: A Panel Data Evidence," MPRA Paper 61334, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    17. Jochen Hartwig, 2009. "A panel Granger-causality test of endogenous vs. exogenous growth," KOF Working papers 09-231, KOF Swiss Economic Institute, ETH Zurich.
    18. Dong, Xiao-yuan & Pandey, Manish, 2012. "Gender and labor retrenchment in Chinese state owned enterprises: Investigation using firm-level panel data," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 23(2), pages 385-395.
    19. Martin Andersson & Hans Lööf, 2011. "Agglomeration and productivity: evidence from firm-level data," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer;Western Regional Science Association, vol. 46(3), pages 601-620, June.
    20. Stimpfle, Alexander & Stadelmann, David, 2015. "The Impact of Fundamental Development Factors on Different Income Groups: International Evidence," VfS Annual Conference 2015 (Muenster): Economic Development - Theory and Policy 113128, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Tax Policy; Public Expenditures; Income Distribution; Tax Progressivity;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • H23 - Public Economics - - Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue - - - Externalities; Redistributive Effects; Environmental Taxes and Subsidies
    • H24 - Public Economics - - Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue - - - Personal Income and Other Nonbusiness Taxes and Subsidies
    • H51 - Public Economics - - National Government Expenditures and Related Policies - - - Government Expenditures and Health
    • H52 - Public Economics - - National Government Expenditures and Related Policies - - - Government Expenditures and Education
    • H53 - Public Economics - - National Government Expenditures and Related Policies - - - Government Expenditures and Welfare Programs
    • H54 - Public Economics - - National Government Expenditures and Related Policies - - - Infrastructures

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:hpe:journl:y:2012:v:200:i:1:p:95-130. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Miguel Gómez de Antonio (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/iefgves.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service. RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.