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Tax burden, government expenditures and income distribution in Brazil

  • Baer, Werner
  • Galvão Jr., Antonio Fialho
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    This article attempts to explain the seeming paradox of a country with a high tax burden and a continually concentrated distribution of income. By means of a structural quantile regression model we analyze the distributional impact of government expenditures on the Gini index, and it is shown that Brazil's redistribution expenditures has a relatively smaller impact for low quantiles of the conditional distribution of income inequality. It is also noted that both the country's tax and expenditure structure are, in part, responsible for the country's continuous concentration of income.

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    Article provided by Elsevier in its journal The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance.

    Volume (Year): 48 (2008)
    Issue (Month): 2 (May)
    Pages: 345-358

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    Handle: RePEc:eee:quaeco:v:48:y:2008:i:2:p:345-358
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    1. Edmund Amann & Werner Baer, 2006. "Economic Orthodoxy Versus Social Development? The Dilemmas Facing Brazil's Labour Government," Oxford Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 34(2), pages 219-241.
    2. Alberto Abadie & Joshua Angrist & Guido Imbens, 2002. "Instrumental Variables Estimates of the Effect of Subsidized Training on the Quantiles of Trainee Earnings," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 70(1), pages 91-117, January.
    3. Luiz de Mello & Erwin R. Tiongson, 2006. "Income Inequality and Redistributive Government Spending," Public Finance Review, , vol. 34(3), pages 282-305, May.
    4. Benedict J. Clements, 1997. "Income Distribution and Social Expenditure in Brazil," IMF Working Papers 97/120, International Monetary Fund.
    5. Koenker, Roger W & Bassett, Gilbert, Jr, 1978. "Regression Quantiles," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 46(1), pages 33-50, January.
    6. Ma, Lingjie & Koenker, Roger, 2006. "Quantile regression methods for recursive structural equation models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 134(2), pages 471-506, October.
    7. Koenker,Roger, 2005. "Quantile Regression," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521845731.
    8. Amemiya, Takeshi, 1982. "Two Stage Least Absolute Deviations Estimators," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 50(3), pages 689-711, May.
    9. Hoffmann, Rodolfo, 2003. "Inequality in Brazil: The Contribution of Pensions," Revista Brasileira de Economia, FGV/EPGE Escola Brasileira de Economia e Finanças, Getulio Vargas Foundation (Brazil), vol. 57(4), October.
    10. Andrew Chesher, 2003. "Identification in Nonseparable Models," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 71(5), pages 1405-1441, 09.
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