IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

R&D Project Valuation Considering Changes of Economic Environment: A Case of a Pharmaceutical R&D Project


  • Jung Ho Park

    (Technology Management, Economics, and Policy Graduate Program, Seoul National University, Gwanak-ro 1, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742, Korea)

  • Kwangsoo Shin

    (Department of Biomedical Convergence, College of Medicine, Chungbuk National University, Chungdae-ro 1, Seowon-gu, Cheongju-si, Chungbuk 28644, Korea)


R&D project valuation is important for effective R&D portfolio management through decision making, related to the firm’s R&D productivity, sustainable management. In particular, scholars have emphasized the necessities of capturing option value in R&D and developed methods of real option valuation. However, despite suggesting various real option models, there are few studies on simultaneously employing mean-reverting stochastic process and Markov regime switching to describe the evolution of cash flow and to reflect time-varying parameters resulting from changes of economic environment. Therefore, we suggest a mean-reverting binomial lattice model under Markov regime switching and apply it to evaluate clinical development with project cases of the pharmaceutical industry. This study finds that decision making can be different according to the regime condition, thus the suggested model can capture risks caused by the uncertainty of the economic environment, represented by regime switching. Further, this study simulates the model according to rate parameter from 0.00 to 1.00 and risk-free interest rates for regimes 1 and 2 from ( r 1 = 4%, r 2 = 2%) to ( r 1 = 7%, r 2 = 5%), and confirms the rigidity of the model. Therefore, in practice, the mean-reverting binomial lattice model under Markov regime switching proposed in this study for R&D project valuation contributes to assisting company R&D project managers make effective decision making considering current economic environment and future changes.

Suggested Citation

  • Jung Ho Park & Kwangsoo Shin, 2018. "R&D Project Valuation Considering Changes of Economic Environment: A Case of a Pharmaceutical R&D Project," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 10(4), pages 1-15, March.
  • Handle: RePEc:gam:jsusta:v:10:y:2018:i:4:p:993-:d:138433

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Cassimon, D. & Engelen, P. J. & Thomassen, L. & Van Wouwe, M., 2004. "The valuation of a NDA using a 6-fold compound option," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 33(1), pages 41-51, January.
    2. Wong, Kit Pong & Yi, Long, 2013. "Irreversibility, mean reversion, and investment timing," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 30(C), pages 770-775.
    3. Chu, Kai Cheung & Wong, Kit Pong, 2010. "Progressive taxation and corporate liquidation policies with mean-reverting earnings," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 27(3), pages 730-736, May.
    4. Wang, Juite & Hwang, W.-L., 2007. "A fuzzy set approach for R&D portfolio selection using a real options valuation model," Omega, Elsevier, vol. 35(3), pages 247-257, June.
    5. Eduardo S. Schwartz, 2004. "Patents and R&D as Real Options," Economic Notes, Banca Monte dei Paschi di Siena SpA, vol. 33(1), pages 23-54, February.
    6. Schwartz, Eduardo S, 1997. "The Stochastic Behavior of Commodity Prices: Implications for Valuation and Hedging," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 52(3), pages 923-973, July.
    7. Glover, Kristoffer J. & Hambusch, Gerhard, 2016. "Leveraged investments and agency conflicts when cash flows are mean reverting," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 67(C), pages 1-21.
    8. Rodolphe Durand & Robert M. Grant & Tammy L. Madsen & Lenos Trigeorgis & Jeffrey J. Reuer, 2017. "Real options theory in strategic management," Strategic Management Journal, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 38(1), pages 42-63, January.
    9. Yang Shen & Kun Fan & Tak Kuen Siu, 2014. "Option Valuation Under a Double Regime‐Switching Model," Journal of Futures Markets, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 34(5), pages 451-478, May.
    10. Ralph Villiger & Boris Bogdan, 2005. "Valuing Pharma R&D: The Catch‐22 of DCF," Journal of Applied Corporate Finance, Morgan Stanley, vol. 17(2), pages 113-116, March.
    11. Avinash K. Dixit & Robert S. Pindyck, 1994. "Investment under Uncertainty," Economics Books, Princeton University Press, edition 1, number 5474.
    12. Nelson, Daniel B & Ramaswamy, Krishna, 1990. "Simple Binomial Processes as Diffusion Approximations in Financial Models," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 3(3), pages 393-430.
    13. Hahn, Warren J. & Dyer, James S., 2008. "Discrete time modeling of mean-reverting stochastic processes for real option valuation," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 184(2), pages 534-548, January.
    14. Bastian-Pinto, Carlos & Brando, Luiz & Hahn, Warren J., 2009. "Flexibility as a source of value in the production of alternative fuels: The ethanol case," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(3), pages 411-422, May.
    15. Massimo Costabile & Arturo Leccadito & Ivar Massabó & Emilio Russo, 2014. "A reduced lattice model for option pricing under regime-switching," Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting, Springer, vol. 42(4), pages 667-690, May.
    16. DiMasi, Joseph A. & Hansen, Ronald W. & Grabowski, Henry G., 2003. "The price of innovation: new estimates of drug development costs," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(2), pages 151-185, March.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Azzurra Morreale & Luigi Mittone & Thi-Thanh-Tam Vu & Mikael Collan, 2020. "To Wait or Not to Wait? Use of the Flexibility to Postpone Investment Decisions in Theory and in Practice," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 12(8), pages 1-19, April.
    2. Kisoon Shin & Daeho Lee & Kwangsoo Shin & Eungdo Kim, 2018. "Measuring the Efficiency of U.S. Pharmaceutical Companies Based on Open Innovation Types," Journal of Open Innovation: Technology, Market, and Complexity, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 4(3), pages 1-21, August.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Carlos Andrés Zapata Quimbayo, 2020. "OPCIONES REALES Una guía teórico-práctica para la valoración de inversiones bajo incertidumbre mediante modelos en tiempo discreto y simulación de Monte Carlo," Books, Universidad Externado de Colombia, Facultad de Finanzas, Gobierno y Relaciones Internacionales, number 138.
    2. Carlos de Lamare Bastian-Pinto & Alexandre Paula Silva Ramos & Luiz de Magalhães Ozorio & Luiz Eduardo Teixeira Brandão, 2015. "Uncertainty and Flexibility in the Brazilian Beef Livestock Sector: the Value of the Confinement Option," Brazilian Business Review, Fucape Business School, vol. 12(6), pages 100-120, November.
    3. Warren J. Hahn & James S. Dyer, 2011. "A Discrete Time Approach for Modeling Two-Factor Mean-Reverting Stochastic Processes," Decision Analysis, INFORMS, vol. 8(3), pages 220-232, September.
    4. Pennings, Enrico & Sereno, Luigi, 2011. "Evaluating pharmaceutical R&D under technical and economic uncertainty," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 212(2), pages 374-385, July.
    5. Lo Nigro, Giovanna & Morreale, Azzurra & Enea, Gianluca, 2014. "Open innovation: A real option to restore value to the biopharmaceutical R&D," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 149(C), pages 183-193.
    6. Engelen, Peter-Jan & Kool, Clemens & Li, Ye, 2016. "A barrier options approach to modeling project failure: The case of hydrogen fuel infrastructure," Resource and Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 43(C), pages 33-56.
    7. Taylor-de-Lima, Reynaldo L.N. & Gerbasi da Silva, Arthur José & Legey, Luiz F.L. & Szklo, Alexandre, 2018. "Evaluation of economic feasibility under uncertainty of a thermochemical route for ethanol production in Brazil," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 150(C), pages 363-376.
    8. Bastian-Pinto, Carlos & Brando, Luiz & Hahn, Warren J., 2009. "Flexibility as a source of value in the production of alternative fuels: The ethanol case," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(3), pages 411-422, May.
    9. Bouasker, O. & Letifi, N. & Prigent, J.-L., 2016. "Optimal funding and hiring/firing policies with mean reverting demand," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 58(C), pages 569-579.
    10. Foo, Nam & Bloch, Harry & Salim, Ruhul, 2018. "The optimisation rule for investment in mining projects," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 55(C), pages 123-132.
    11. Kobari, L. & Jaimungal, S. & Lawryshyn, Y., 2014. "A real options model to evaluate the effect of environmental policies on the oil sands rate of expansion," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 45(C), pages 155-165.
    12. Das Gupta, Supratim, 2021. "Using real options to value capacity additions and investment expenditures in renewable energies in India," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 148(PA).
    13. Pringles, Rolando & Olsina, Fernando & Garcés, Francisco, 2015. "Real option valuation of power transmission investments by stochastic simulation," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 47(C), pages 215-226.
    14. Deeney, Peter & Cummins, Mark & Heintz, Katharina & Pryce, Mary T., 2021. "A real options based decision support tool for R&D investment: Application to CO2 recycling technology," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 289(2), pages 696-711.
    15. Alejandro Mac Cawley & Maximiliano Cubillos & Rodrigo Pascual, 2020. "A real options approach for joint overhaul and replacement strategies with mean reverting prices," Annals of Operations Research, Springer, vol. 286(1), pages 303-324, March.
    16. Giovanna Lo Nigro & Azzurra Morreale & Lorenzo Abbate, 2016. "An Open Innovation Decision Support System to Select a Biopharmaceutical R&D Portfolio," Managerial and Decision Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 37(6), pages 392-406, September.
    17. Secomandi, Nicola & Seppi, Duane J., 2014. "Real Options and Merchant Operations of Energy and Other Commodities," Foundations and Trends(R) in Technology, Information and Operations Management, now publishers, vol. 6(3-4), pages 161-331, July.
    18. Wong, Kit Pong & Yi, Long, 2013. "Irreversibility, mean reversion, and investment timing," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 30(C), pages 770-775.
    19. Guedes, José & Santos, Pedro, 2016. "Valuing an offshore oil exploration and production project through real options analysis," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 60(C), pages 377-386.
    20. Wenbin Wang & Mark E. Ferguson & Shanshan Hu & Gilvan C. Souza, 2013. "Dynamic Capacity Investment with Two Competing Technologies," Manufacturing & Service Operations Management, INFORMS, vol. 15(4), pages 616-629, October.


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:gam:jsusta:v:10:y:2018:i:4:p:993-:d:138433. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: XML Conversion Team (email available below). General contact details of provider: .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.