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Retail sweep programs and bank reserves, 1994-1999

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  • Richard G. Anderson
  • Robert H. Rasche

Abstract

Since January 1994, the Federal Reserve Board has permitted depository institutions in the United States to implement so-called “retail sweep programs.” The essence of these programs is computer software that dynamically reclassifies customer deposits from transaction accounts, which are subject to statutory reserve-requirement ratios as high as 10 percent, to money market deposit accounts, which have a zero ratio. Through the use of such software, hundreds of banks have sharply reduced the amount of their required reserves. In many cases, this new lower requirement places no constraint on the bank because it is less than the amount of reserves (vault cash and deposits at the Federal Reserve) that the bank requires for its ordinary day-to-day business. In the terminology introduced by Anderson and Rasche (1996b), such deposit-sweeping activity has allowed these banks to become “economically nonbound” and has reduced to zero the economic burden (“tax”) due to statutory reserve requirements. In this analysis, we examine a large panel of U.S. banks and develop quantitative estimates of the impact of sweep software programs on the demand for bank reserves.

Suggested Citation

  • Richard G. Anderson & Robert H. Rasche, 2001. "Retail sweep programs and bank reserves, 1994-1999," Review, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, issue Jan, pages 51-72.
  • Handle: RePEc:fip:fedlrv:y:2001:i:jan:p:51-72:n:v.83no.1
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Duca, John V., 2013. "Did the commercial paper funding facility prevent a Great Depression style money market meltdown?," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 9(4), pages 747-758.
    2. Anderson, Richard G. & Bordo, Michael & Duca, John V., 2017. "Money and velocity during financial crises: From the great depression to the great recession," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 81(C), pages 32-49.
    3. Thornton, Daniel L., 2014. "Monetary policy: Why money matters (and interest rates don’t)," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 202-213.
    4. Selva Demiralp, 2001. "Monetary policy in a changing world: rising role of expectations and the anticipation effect," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2001-55, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    5. William Barnett & Jia Liu & Ryan Mattson & Jeff Noort, 2013. "The New CFS Divisia Monetary Aggregates: Design, Construction, and Data Sources," Open Economies Review, Springer, vol. 24(1), pages 101-124, February.
    6. Selva Demiralp & Oscar Jorda, "undated". "The Pavlovian Response of Term Rates to Fed Announcements," Department of Economics 99-06, California Davis - Department of Economics.
    7. Selva Demiralp & Òscar Jordà, 2002. "The announcement effect: evidence from open market desk data," Economic Policy Review, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, issue May, pages 29-48.
    8. Telser, Lester G., 2007. "Solvency vs competition: Hobson's choice for the Fed," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 26(7), pages 1151-1173, November.
    9. Fleissig, Adrian R. & Jones, Barry E., 2015. "The impact of commercial sweeping on the demand for monetary assets during the Great Recession," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 45(C), pages 412-422.
    10. Haug & Julie Tam, 2007. "A Closer Look At Long-Run U.S. Money Demand: Linear Or Nonlinear Error-Correction With M0, M1, Or M2?," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 45(2), pages 363-376, April.
    11. Parantap Basu, 2014. "Quantitative Easing in an Endogenous Growth Model," CEGAP Working Papers 2014_01, Durham University Business School.
    12. Richard G. Anderson & Barry E. Jones, 2011. "A comprehensive revision of the U.S. monetary services (divisia) indexes," Review, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, issue Sep, pages 325-360.
    13. Duca, John V., 2016. "How capital regulation and other factors drive the role of shadow banking in funding short-term business credit," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 69(S1), pages 10-24.
    14. Tatom, John, 2006. "Money Growth Has Slowed Sharply—Should Anybody Care?," MPRA Paper 17780, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    15. Binner, J.M. & Tino, P. & Tepper, J. & Anderson, R. & Jones, B. & Kendall, G., 2010. "Does money matter in inflation forecasting?," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 389(21), pages 4793-4808.
    16. William T. Gavin, 2009. "More money: understanding recent changes in the monetary base," Review, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, issue Mar, pages 49-60.

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    Keywords

    Money supply ; Bank reserves;

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