IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/worbus/v49y2014i3p290-300.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Strategic hedging: Evidence from Brazilian exporters

Author

Listed:
  • Boehe, Dirk Michael

Abstract

How and why do exporters adjust their portfolios of destination countries in response to exchange rate movements? How do such geographic export diversification choices affect firm performance? Drawing on the corporate strategy and international business literature, we argue that firms enjoying low exchange rate competitiveness can increase their performance by expanding their exports to different world regions and vice versa. Studying a panel of Brazilian exporters during the years 2001–2010 and using a system of moderated mediation models with firm, industry and period fixed effects, we find that unrelated geographic diversification of exports is more effective than related diversification in counteracting exchange rate pressures.

Suggested Citation

  • Boehe, Dirk Michael, 2014. "Strategic hedging: Evidence from Brazilian exporters," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 49(3), pages 290-300.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:worbus:v:49:y:2014:i:3:p:290-300
    DOI: 10.1016/j.jwb.2013.05.001
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1090951613000242
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Terry Clark & Masaaki Kotabe & Dan Rajaratnam, 1999. "Exchange Rate Pass-Through and International Pricing Strategy: A Conceptual Framework and Research Propositions," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 30(2), pages 249-268, June.
    2. Linda Allen & Christos Pantzalis, 1996. "Valuation of the operating Flexibility of Multinational Corporations," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 27(4), pages 633-653, December.
    3. Sushil Vachani, 1991. "Distinguishing Between Related and Unrelated International Geographic Diversification: A Comprehensive Measure of Global Diversification," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 22(2), pages 307-322, June.
    4. Heather Berry & Mauro F Guillén & Nan Zhou, 2010. "An institutional approach to cross-national distance," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 41(9), pages 1460-1480, December.
    5. Martina Lawless, 2010. "Geography and firm exports: new evidence on the nature of sunk costs," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 146(4), pages 691-707, December.
    6. James E. Anderson & Eric van Wincoop, 2004. "Trade Costs," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 42(3), pages 691-751, September.
    7. Jean-François Hennart, 2007. "The theoretical rationale for a multinationality-performance relationship," Management International Review, Springer, vol. 47(3), pages 423-452, June.
    8. Timothy A Luehrman, 1991. "Exchange Rate Changes and the Distribution of Industry Value," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 22(4), pages 619-649, December.
    9. John L. Evans & Stephen H. Archer, 1968. "Diversification And The Reduction Of Dispersion: An Empirical Analysis," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 23(5), pages 761-767, December.
    10. Davidson, Russell & MacKinnon, James G., 1993. "Estimation and Inference in Econometrics," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780195060119.
    11. Jacquemin, Alexis P & Berry, Charles H, 1979. "Entropy Measure of Diversification and Corporate Growth," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 27(4), pages 359-369, June.
    12. Campa, Jose Manuel, 2004. "Exchange rates and trade: How important is hysteresis in trade?," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 48(3), pages 527-548, June.
    13. Fraser, Steve P. & Pantzalis, Christos, 2004. "Foreign exchange rate exposure of US multinational corporations: a firm-specific approach," Journal of Multinational Financial Management, Elsevier, vol. 14(3), pages 261-281, July.
    14. Hirsch, Seev & Lev, Baruch, 1974. "The firm's export concentration: Determinants and applications," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 2(6), pages 27-33, June.
    15. Dong He & Wei Liao, 2012. "Asian Business Cycle Synchronization," Pacific Economic Review, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 17(1), pages 106-135, February.
    16. Muller, Aline & Verschoor, Willem F.C., 2006. "Foreign exchange risk exposure: Survey and suggestions," Journal of Multinational Financial Management, Elsevier, vol. 16(4), pages 385-410, October.
    17. Seung-Hyun Lee & Mona Makhija, 2009. "The effect of domestic uncertainty on the real options value of international investments," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 40(3), pages 405-420, April.
    18. Christos Pantzalis & Betty J Simkins & Paul A Laux, 2001. "Operational Hedges and the Foreign Exchange Exposure of U.S. Multinational Corporations," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 32(4), pages 793-812, December.
    19. Bhagwan Chowdhry & Jonathan T. B. Howe, 1999. "Corporate Risk Management for Multinational Corporations: Financial and Operational Hedging Policies," Review of Finance, European Finance Association, vol. 2(2), pages 229-246.
    20. Andrew Abbott & Joshy Easaw & Tao Xing, 2008. "Trade Integration and Business Cycle Convergence: Is the Relation Robust across Time and Space?," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 110(2), pages 403-417, June.
    21. Alan M Rugman & Alain Verbeke, 2004. "A perspective on regional and global strategies of multinational enterprises," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 35(1), pages 3-18, January.
    22. Richard Baldwin & Paul Krugman, 1989. "Persistent Trade Effects of Large Exchange Rate Shocks," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 104(4), pages 635-654.
    23. David Greenaway & Richard Kneller & Xufei Zhang, 2010. "The Effect of Exchange Rates on Firm Exports: The Role of Imported Intermediate Inputs," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 33(8), pages 961-986, August.
    24. Chung, Chris Changwha & Lee, Seung-Hyun & Beamish, Paul W. & Southam, Colette & Nam, Daeil (Dale), 2013. "Pitting real options theory against risk diversification theory: International diversification and joint ownership control in economic crisis," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 48(1), pages 122-136.
    25. Bartov, Eli & Bodnar, Gordon M, 1994. " Firm Valuation, Earnings Expectations, and the Exchange-Rate Exposure Effect," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 49(5), pages 1755-1785, December.
    26. Pangarkar, Nitin, 2008. "Internationalization and performance of small- and medium-sized enterprises," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 43(4), pages 475-485, October.
    27. Raymond Donnelly & Edward Sheehy, 1996. "The Share Price Reaction of U.K. Exporters to Exchange Rate Movements: An Empirical Study," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 27(1), pages 157-165, March.
    28. Jia He & Lilian K. Ng, 1998. "The Foreign Exchange Exposure of Japanese Multinational Corporations," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 53(2), pages 733-753, April.
    29. Baldwin, Richard E. & Lyons, Richard K., 1994. "Exchange rate hysteresis? Large versus small policy misalignments," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 38(1), pages 1-22, January.
    30. Andrew B. Bernard & J. Bradford Jensen, 2004. "Entry, Expansion, and Intensity in the US Export Boom, 1987-1992," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 12(4), pages 662-675, September.
    31. Alan M. Taylor & Mark P. Taylor, 2004. "The Purchasing Power Parity Debate," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 18(4), pages 135-158, Fall.
    32. Klaus E. Meyer, 2006. "Globalfocusing: From Domestic Conglomerates to Global Specialists," Journal of Management Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 43(5), pages 1109-1144, July.
    33. Opler, Tim C & Titman, Sheridan, 1994. " Financial Distress and Corporate Performance," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 49(3), pages 1015-1040, July.
    34. Beleska-Spasova, Elena & Glaister, Keith W. & Stride, Chris, 2012. "Resource determinants of strategy and performance: The case of British exporters," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 47(4), pages 635-647.
    35. Hirsch, Seev & Lev, Baruch, 1971. "Sales Stabilization Through Export Diversification," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 53(3), pages 270-277, August.
    36. Contractor, Farok J. & Kumar, Vikas & Kundu, Sumit K., 2007. "Nature of the relationship between international expansion and performance: The case of emerging market firms," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 42(4), pages 401-417, December.
    37. Roberts, Mark J & Tybout, James R, 1997. "The Decision to Export in Colombia: An Empirical Model of Entry with Sunk Costs," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 87(4), pages 545-564, September.
    38. Andreas Moxnes, 2010. "Are sunk costs in exporting country specific?," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 43(2), pages 467-493, May.
    39. Andrew Bernard & Joachim Wagner, 2001. "Export entry and exit by German firms," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 137(1), pages 105-123, March.
    40. Norbert Fiess, 2007. "Business Cycle Synchronization and Regional Integration: A Case Study for Central America," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 21(1), pages 49-72.
    41. Statman, Meir, 1987. "How Many Stocks Make a Diversified Portfolio?," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 22(03), pages 353-363, September.
    42. Dennis E. Logue, 1995. "When Theory Fails: Globalization As A Response To The (Hostile) Market For Foreign Exchange," Journal of Applied Corporate Finance, Morgan Stanley, vol. 8(3), pages 39-48.
    43. Tilak Abeysinghe & Tan Lin Yeok, 1998. "Exchange rate appreciation and export competitiveness. The case of Singapore," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 30(1), pages 51-55.
    44. Peng, Mike W. & Zhou, Yuanyuan & York, Anne S., 2006. "Behind make or buy decisions in export strategy: A replication and extension of Trabold," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 41(3), pages 289-300, September.
    45. Gabriel Hawawini & Venkata Subban Subramanian & Paul Verdin, 2003. "Is performance driven by industry- or firm-specific factors? A new look at the evidence," ULB Institutional Repository 2013/14188, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
    46. Kiyohiko Ito, 1997. "Domestic Competitive Position and Export Strategy of Japanese Manufacturing Firms: 1971--1985," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 43(5), pages 610-622, May.
    47. Jan Johanson & Jan-Erik Vahlne, 1977. "The Internationalization Process of the Firm—A Model of Knowledge Development and Increasing Foreign Market Commitments," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 8(1), pages 23-32, March.
    48. Kent D Miller, 1992. "A Framework for Integrated Risk Management in International Business," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 23(2), pages 311-331, June.
    49. Lee, Seung-Hyun & Beamish, Paul W. & Lee, Ho-Uk & Park, Jong-Hun, 2009. "Strategic choice during economic crisis: Domestic market position, organizational capabilities and export flexibility," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 44(1), pages 1-15, January.
    50. Bruce Kogut & Nalin Kulatilaka, 1994. "Operating Flexibility, Global Manufacturing, and the Option Value of a Multinational Network," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 40(1), pages 123-139, January.
    51. Kandil, Magda, 2011. "Trade Flows, Financial Linkage, and Business Cycles in Latin America," Journal of Economic Integration, Center for Economic Integration, Sejong University, vol. 26, pages 526-553.
    52. Gongming Qian & Lee Li & Ji Li & Zhengming Qian, 2008. "Regional diversification and firm performance," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 39(2), pages 197-214, March.
    53. Muller, Aline & Verschoor, Willem F.C., 2006. "Asymmetric foreign exchange risk exposure: Evidence from U.S. multinational firms," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 13(4-5), pages 495-518, October.
    54. Adom, Assandé Désiré & Sharma, Subhash C. & Morshed, A.K.M. Mahbub, 2010. "Economic integration in Africa," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 50(3), pages 245-253, August.
    55. Aline Muller & Willem F. C. Verschoor, 2006. "European Foreign Exchange Risk Exposure," European Financial Management, European Financial Management Association, vol. 12(2), pages 195-220.
    56. Hsu, Wen-Tsung & Chen, Hsiang-Lan & Cheng, Chia-Yi, 2013. "Internationalization and firm performance of SMEs: The moderating effects of CEO attributes," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 48(1), pages 1-12.
    57. Anderson, James E, 1979. "A Theoretical Foundation for the Gravity Equation," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 69(1), pages 106-116, March.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. repec:eee:iburev:v:27:y:2018:i:1:p:102-112 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. Boehe, Dirk Michael & Jiménez, Alfredo, 2016. "How does the geographic export diversification–performance relationship vary at different levels of export intensity?," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 25(6), pages 1262-1272.

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:worbus:v:49:y:2014:i:3:p:290-300. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Dana Niculescu). General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/620401/description#description .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.