Is there a case for replacing parking charges by road user charges?
The price of parking is often considered an important tool with which to influence transport choice but, since many local authorities have limited control over off-street charges and since parking charges have no direct impact on through traffic, its influence on overall travel demand may be limited. Road user charges, on the other hand, do appear to offer an effective means of influencing overall demand. The problem is that public acceptance of such charges is low unless some obvious "carrot" can be identified. This paper explores the possibility that the removal of parking charges might be that "carrot". Our analysis suggests that, although the removal of parking charges would reduce revenues and dilute the reduction in demand caused by the introduction of road charges, the combined effect might, in certain circumstances, be more beneficial to the local economy and might still yield a net increase in revenue. Given the incidence of impacts, it also appears that a combined scheme would be more equitable and might stand a greater chance of achieving public acceptance than a more conventional road charging scheme. The paper identifies the circumstances in which a combined scheme might work well and outlines the detailed analysis that would be necessary to confirm this.
If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
Volume (Year): 17 (2010)
Issue (Month): 5 (September)
|Contact details of provider:|| Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/30473/description#description|
|Order Information:|| Postal: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/supportfaq.cws_home/regional|
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Arnott, Richard, 2006.
"Spatial competition between parking garages and downtown parking policy,"
Elsevier, vol. 13(6), pages 458-469, November.
- Richard Arnott, 2005. "Spatial Competition between Parking Garages and Downtown Parking Policy," Boston College Working Papers in Economics 627, Boston College Department of Economics.
- Eliasson, Jonas, 2009. "A cost-benefit analysis of the Stockholm congestion charging system," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 43(4), pages 468-480, May.
- Shoup, Donald C., 2006. "Cruising for parking," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 13(6), pages 479-486, November.
- Langmyhr, Tore, 1997. "Managing equity : The case of road pricing," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 4(1), pages 25-39, January.
- Shoup, Donald C., 1997. "Evaluating the effects of cashing out employer-paid parking: Eight case studies," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 4(4), pages 201-216, October.
- Mohammed A. Quddus & Alon Carmel & Michael G. H. Bell, 2007. "The Impact of the Congestion Charge on Retail: the London Experience," Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, University of Bath, vol. 41(1), pages 113-133, January.
- Watters, Paul & O'Mahony, Margaret & Caulfield, Brian, 2006. "Response to cash outs for work place parking and work place parking charges," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 13(6), pages 503-510, November.
- Shoup, Donald C., 1997. "Evaluating the effects of cashing out employer-paid parking: Eight case studies," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers qt2qw4w2s1, University of California Transportation Center.
- Hensher, David A. & King, Jenny, 2001. "Parking demand and responsiveness to supply, pricing and location in the Sydney central business district," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 35(3), pages 177-196, March.
- Quddus, Mohammed A. & Bell, Michael G.H. & Schmöcker, Jan-Dirk & Fonzone, Achille, 2007. "The impact of the congestion charge on the retail business in London: An econometric analysis," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 14(5), pages 433-444, September.
- Edward Calthrop & Stef Proost, 1998. "Road Transport Externalities," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 11(3), pages 335-348, April.
- Gillen, David W., 1977. "Estimation and specification of the effects of parking costs on urban transport mode choice," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 4(2), pages 186-199, April.
- Andrew Kelly, J. & Peter Clinch, J., 2006. "Influence of varied parking tariffs on parking occupancy levels by trip purpose," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 13(6), pages 487-495, November.
- S. Jaensirisak & M. Wardman & A. D. May, 2005. "Explaining Variations in Public Acceptability of Road Pricing Schemes," Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, University of Bath, vol. 39(2), pages 127-154, May.
- Shoup, Donald C., 2006. "Cruising for Parking," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers qt55s7079f, University of California Transportation Center.
- Albert, Gila & Mahalel, David, 2006. "Congestion tolls and parking fees: A comparison of the potential effect on travel behavior," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 13(6), pages 496-502, November.
- Jens Schade & Bernhard Schlag, 2000. "Acceptability of Urban Transport Pricing," Research Reports 72, Government Institute for Economic Research Finland (VATT).
- Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov & Rudholm, Niklas & Rämme, Ulf, 2009. "Congestion charges and retail revenues: Results from the Stockholm road pricing trial," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 43(3), pages 306-309, March.
- Marsden, Greg, 2006. "The evidence base for parking policies--a review," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 13(6), pages 447-457, November.
- Button, Kenneth, 2006. "The political economy of parking charges in "first" and "second-best" worlds," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 13(6), pages 470-478, November. Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)