IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/transb/v53y2013icp31-44.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Competition in multi-modal transport networks: A dynamic approach

Author

Listed:
  • van der Weijde, Adriaan Hendrik
  • Verhoef, Erik T.
  • van den Berg, Vincent A.C.

Abstract

We analyze the behavior of market participants in a multi-modal commuter network, where roads are not priced, but public transport has a usage fee, which is set while taking the effects on the roads into account. In particular, we analyze the difference between markets with a monopolistic public transport operator, which operates all public transport links, and markets in which separate operators own each public transport link. To do so, we consider a simple dynamic transport network consisting of two serial segments and two parallel congestible modes of transport. We obtain a reduced form of the public transport operator’s optimal fare setting problem and show that, even if the total travel demand is inelastic, serial Bertrand–Nash competition on the public transport links leads to different fares than a serial monopoly; a result not observed in a static model. This results from the fact that trip timing decisions, and therefore the generalized prices of all commuters, are influenced by all fares in the network. We then use numerical simulations to show that, contrary to the results obtained in classic studies on vertical competition, monopolistic fares are not always lower than duopolistic fares; the opposite can also occur. We also explore how different parameters influence the price differential, and how this affects welfare.

Suggested Citation

  • van der Weijde, Adriaan Hendrik & Verhoef, Erik T. & van den Berg, Vincent A.C., 2013. "Competition in multi-modal transport networks: A dynamic approach," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 53(C), pages 31-44.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:transb:v:53:y:2013:i:c:p:31-44
    DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2013.03.003
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S019126151300043X
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version below or search for a different version of it.

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Arnott Richard & Kraus Marvin, 1995. "Financing Capacity in the Bottleneck Model," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 38(3), pages 272-290, November.
    2. Arnott, Richard & Kraus, Marvin, 1993. "The Ramsey problem for congestible facilities," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 50(3), pages 371-396, March.
    3. Economides, Nicholas & Salop, Steven C, 1992. "Competition and Integration among Complements, and Network Market Structure," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 40(1), pages 105-123, March.
    4. Borger Bruno De & Dunkerley Fay & Proost Stef, 2008. "The Interaction between Tolls and Capacity Investment in Serial and Parallel Transport Networks," Review of Network Economics, De Gruyter, vol. 7(1), pages 1-23, March.
    5. Arnott, Richard & DePalma, Elijah, 2011. "The corridor problem: Preliminary results on the no-toll equilibrium," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 45(5), pages 743-768, June.
    6. Henderson, J. V., 1974. "Road congestion : A reconsideration of pricing theory," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 1(3), pages 346-365, July.
    7. Erik T. Verhoef, 2008. "Private Roads: Auctions and Competition in Networks," Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, University of Bath, vol. 42(3), pages 463-493, September.
    8. Chu Xuehao, 1995. "Endogenous Trip Scheduling: The Henderson Approach Reformulated and Compared with the Vickrey Approach," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 37(3), pages 324-343, May.
    9. Richard Arnott & An Yan, 2000. "The Two-Mode Problem: Second-Best Pricing and Capacity," Boston College Working Papers in Economics 474, Boston College Department of Economics.
    10. Small, Kenneth A, 1982. "The Scheduling of Consumer Activities: Work Trips," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 72(3), pages 467-479, June.
    11. Eric Pels & Erik T Verhoef, 2007. "Infrastructure Pricing and Competition between Modes in Urban Transport," Environment and Planning A, , vol. 39(9), pages 2119-2138, September.
    12. Li, Zheng & Hensher, David A., 2011. "Crowding and public transport: A review of willingness to pay evidence and its relevance in project appraisal," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 18(6), pages 880-887, November.
    13. Tian, Qiong & Huang, Hai-Jun & Yang, Hai, 2007. "Equilibrium properties of the morning peak-period commuting in a many-to-one mass transit system," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 41(6), pages 616-631, July.
    14. Kraus, Marvin & Yoshida, Yuichiro, 2002. "The Commuter's Time-of-Use Decision and Optimal Pricing and Service in Urban Mass Transit," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 51(1), pages 170-195, January.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. repec:eee:reensy:v:158:y:2017:i:c:p:58-72 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. de Rus, Ginés & Socorro, M. Pilar, 2014. "Access pricing, infrastructure investment and intermodal competition," Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, Elsevier, vol. 70(C), pages 374-387.
    3. Wang, Hua & Meng, Qiang & Zhang, Xiaoning, 2014. "Game-theoretical models for competition analysis in a new emerging liner container shipping market," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 70(C), pages 201-227.
    4. Adriaan Hendrik van der Weijde, 2014. "Price Differentiation and Discrimination in Transport Networks," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 14-099/VIII, Tinbergen Institute.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Public transport; Congestion; Competition; Market design;

    JEL classification:

    • L10 - Industrial Organization - - Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance - - - General
    • L92 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Transportation and Utilities - - - Railroads and Other Surface Transportation
    • R41 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Transportation Economics - - - Transportation: Demand, Supply, and Congestion; Travel Time; Safety and Accidents; Transportation Noise
    • R48 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Transportation Economics - - - Government Pricing and Policy

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:transb:v:53:y:2013:i:c:p:31-44. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Dana Niculescu). General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/548/description#description .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.