A Review of Carbon Capture and Sequestration in Iran: Microalgal Biofixation Potential in Iran
The continuous rise in CO2 and global warming is a major issue facing the world today. Iran with annual CO2 production of 532.4 million tons in 2010 has been reported to be the 9th country in the world. Shortage, low efficiency, losses, subsidies and unsuitable consumption pattern in sub-sectors challenge Iran׳s energy sector. Country׳s energy supply is intensively dependent on oil and gas, which lead to produce more greenhouse-gas emission. Therefore, Iran should establish some policies to control its environmental pollutions and place carbon-mitigation strategy within the government agenda as soon as possible. Efficient use of energy, progress of renewable energy and enhancing CO2 sequestration to mitigate more CO2 can be alternatives for reduction of greenhouse-gas emissions. Regarding major geological formations such as the second largest natural-gas reservoir and the third-greatest oil reservoir in the world and the second largest basin in the Middle East, storage of carbon and enhanced oil recovery seem to be a suitable choice for carbon capture and storage. Moreover, in Iran due to a vast land area, presence of various saline lakes which containing different species of microalgae and opportunity of establishing microalgae culture ponds, the capture unit and microalgal culture can be located close to carbon sources, which are scattered and far from geological formations. Besides CO2 mitigation, microalgae cultures can also produce valuable products and cause carbon capture more efficient. This article with the aim of anthropogenic CO2 reduction, reviews programs in the field of energy management and sustainable energy development to control emission. Then carbon sources and the potentials to capture and sequester CO2 are explored. In the end, potentials of microalgae in Iran to mitigate CO2 are described. This review is designed to investigate abilities in Iran to utilize or minimize CO2 and deploy biological carbon sequestration in the context of Iran׳s policy environment.
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Volume (Year): 35 (2014)
Issue (Month): C ()
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