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Carrots or sticks? A social custom viewpoint on worker effort


  • Chang, Juin-jen
  • Lai, Ching-chong


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  • Chang, Juin-jen & Lai, Ching-chong, 1999. "Carrots or sticks? A social custom viewpoint on worker effort," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 15(2), pages 297-310, June.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:poleco:v:15:y:1999:i:2:p:297-310

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Pisauro, Giuseppe, 1991. "The effect of taxes on labour in efficiency wage models," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 46(3), pages 329-345, December.
    2. Ernst Fehr & Simon Gachter & Georg Kirchsteiger, 1997. "Reciprocity as a Contract Enforcement Device: Experimental Evidence," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 65(4), pages 833-860, July.
    3. Leonard, Jonathan S, 1987. "Carrots and Sticks: Pay, Supervision, and Turnover," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 5(4), pages 136-152, October.
    4. Alison L. Booth, 1985. "The Free Rider Problem and a Social Custom Model of Trade Union Membership," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 100(1), pages 253-261.
    5. George A. Akerlof, 1982. "Labor Contracts as Partial Gift Exchange," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 97(4), pages 543-569.
    6. Lawrence F. Katz, 1986. "Efficiency Wage Theories: A Partial Evaluation," NBER Chapters,in: NBER Macroeconomics Annual 1986, Volume 1, pages 235-290 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    7. Corneo, Giacomo, 1995. "Social custom, management opposition, and trade union membership," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 39(2), pages 275-292, February.
    8. Dilip Mookherjee, 1984. "Optimal Incentive Schemes with Many Agents," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 51(3), pages 433-446.
    9. Naylor, Robin & Raaum, Oddbjorn, 1993. "The Open Shop Union, Wages, and Management Opposition," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 45(4), pages 589-604, October.
    10. Arai, Mahmood, 1989. "Monitoring and additional wages in labour extraction," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 11(1), pages 115-125, January.
    11. Carter, Thomas J. & De Lancey, Paul R., 1997. "Just, Unjust, and Just-Cause Dismissals," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 19(3), pages 619-628, July.
    12. Robin Naylor, 1989. "Strikes, Free Riders, and Social Customs," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 104(4), pages 771-785.
    13. George A. Akerlof, 1980. "A Theory of Social Custom, of which Unemployment may be One Consequence," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 94(4), pages 749-775.
    14. Carmichael, H Lorne, 1990. "Efficiency Wage Models of Unemployment--One View," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 28(2), pages 269-295, April.
    15. Shapiro, Carl & Stiglitz, Joseph E, 1984. "Equilibrium Unemployment as a Worker Discipline Device," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 74(3), pages 433-444, June.
    16. Frey, Bruno S., 1993. "Shirking or work morale? : The impact of regulating," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 37(8), pages 1523-1532, December.
    17. Frey, Bruno S, 1993. "Does Monitoring Increase Work Effort? The Rivalry with Trust and Loyalty," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 31(4), pages 663-670, October.
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    Cited by:

    1. Garcia-Prado, Ariadna, 2005. "Sweetening the carrot : motivating public physicians for better performance," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3772, The World Bank.
    2. Dennis Dittrich & Martin Kocher, 2006. "Monitoring and Pay: An Experiment on Employee Performance under Endogenous Supervision," Papers on Strategic Interaction 2006-23, Max Planck Institute of Economics, Strategic Interaction Group.
    3. Bruno S. Frey & Reto Jegen, "undated". "Motivation Crowding Theory: A Survey Of Empirical Evidence, Revised Version," IEW - Working Papers 049, Institute for Empirical Research in Economics - University of Zurich.
    4. José Antonio Alfaro & Josep Tribó, 2003. "Monitoring, Operational Manager Efforts and Inventory Policy," Faculty Working Papers 11/03, School of Economics and Business Administration, University of Navarra.
    5. Rommel, Jens & Buttmann, Vera & Liebig, Georg & Schönwetter, Stephanie & Svart-Gröger, Valeria, 2015. "Motivation crowding theory and pro-environmental behavior: Experimental evidence," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 129(C), pages 42-44.
    6. Laszlo Goerke & Markus Pannenberg, 2004. "Norm-Based Trade Union Membership: Evidence for Germany," German Economic Review, Verein für Socialpolitik, vol. 5(4), pages 481-504, November.

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